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  • Author or Editor: P. L. Chapman x
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Gastric dilatation was experimentally induced in 6 anesthetized dogs maintained with constant-dose isoflurane in oxygen. An intragastric balloon was used to distend the stomach with a constant 30 mm of Hg pressure for 3.5 hours. The Pa co 2 was maintained between 35 and 45 mm of Hg, using intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. Cardiopulmonary measurements prior to stomach distension (baseline) were compared with measurements taken during 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 hours of stomach distension by analyzing the change from baseline in a randomized-block analysis with each dog as a block. After distending the stomach, cardiac index increased (P < 0.01) from 1.5 to 3.5 hours. Stroke volume did not change, thus the increase in the cardiac index was attributable to an increase in heart rate. During inflation, increases were observed in systemic arterial, pulmonary arterial, and right atrial pressure. Respiratory frequency was unchanged; however, to maintain Pa co 2 constant, it was necessary to progressively increase peak airway pressure. Although Pa co 2 tended to decrease during gastric dilation, the dogs were never hypoxemic. These results indicate that when our methods are used to maintain a constant anesthetic dose of isoflurane in oxygen, an observed increase in cardiovascular performance is expected. This differs from other studies in anesthetized dogs that have shown reduction in cardiovascular performance following gastric dilatation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The accuracy of the Doppler technique for indirect systolic blood pressure measurement was assessed in 16 anesthetized cats. Eight cats were anesthetized with isoflurane and 8 were anesthetized with halothane. Anesthetic depth and mode of ventilation were varied to obtain a wide range of arterial blood pressure. A Doppler transducer was placed on the palmer surface of the left forelimb over the common digital branch of the radial artery to detect blood flow, and a blood pressure monitoring cuff with a width 37% the limb circumference was placed half way between the elbow and the carpus. To enable direct arterial pressure measurements, the left femoral artery was catheterized and the blood pressure waveforms recorded simultaneously.

Systolic blood pressure measured by use of the Doppler ultrasonic technique was significantly lower than that obtained from the femoral artery catheter. Using linear regression, we determined a clinically useful calibration adjustment for Doppler indirect blood pressure measurement in cats: femoral systolic pressure = Doppler systolic pressure + 14 mm of Hg.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The purpose of this study was to compare the thermodilution technique for estimation of cardiac output with the indocyanine green dye dilution technique at flows between 10 and 39 L/min in halothane-anesthetized horses. The estimation of area of dye dilution cardiac output curves was made by using the fore-’n-aft (fa) triangle method. This shorthand technique was compared with logarithmic exponential extrapolation and summation (extrapolated area), using 64 cardiac output curves. Then, 256 simultaneous thermodilution measurements were compared with dye dilution measurements calculated by use of the fa technique. Forty milliliters of iced 0.9% NaCl solution containing 15 mg of indocyanine green dye was used as the indicator. This was delivered in < 1 second to the right atrium, using a power injector. A thermistor positioned in the pulmonary artery detected the thermal indicator. Blood was withdrawn from the carotid artery through a densitometer cuvette to measure the dye concentration. The fa estimations of area were higher than those determined by use of extrapolated area. A multiplicative adjustment of 0.837 was estimated. On average, thermodilution estimates of cardiac output exceeded the adjusted fa determinations. Using a weighted linear regression, we determined the following calibration adjustment: thermal dilution cardiac output/1.048 = indocyanine green dye dilution cardiac output.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To measure arterial and venous blood gas, coagulation, and fibrinolysis variables in blood from isolated segments of control and ischemic large colons for the purpose of identifying variables for rapid, indirect assessment of colonic mucosal injury.


Variables were determined at specific intervals during the 4-hour study (3 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion).


Seven clinically normal horses between 2 and 15 years old.


Horses underwent laparotomy and occlusion of the lumen and vasculature of the mid-portion of the pelvic flexure of the large colon. During ischemia of 1 randomly-chosen colonic segment, variables were measured to determine colonic mucosal damage and were compared with histologic scores of colonic biopsy specimens.


Significant (P < 0.05) differences from control values were observed over time for venous pH, Pco2, Po2, oxygen saturation, oxygen content, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and lactate and glucose concentrations. Mean histologic scores of biopsy specimens obtained from ischemic colons were significantly (P < 0.05) greater (indicating greater damage) than those from control colons, and increased significantly (P < 0.05) with duration of ischemia.


Venous lactate, oxygen saturation, and Po2 values were the most significant predictors of the severity of histologic damage within the ischemic colons (R 2 = 0.661).

Clinical Relevance

Venous blood gas and lactate values in the large colon are good predictors of the amount of intestinal damage incurred during 3 hours of ischemia, and may be clinically useful for the rapid determination of colonic viability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research