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  • Author or Editor: P. H. McCarthy x
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SUMMARY

The anatomy of each feature and structure of the laryngeal and adjacent regions, as perceived by palpation, is described for clinically normal standing horses. Visible skin contours produced by some of the superficial structures are also described. Concurrent dissection was performed on fresh cadavers to confirm initial findings. The procedure of systematic palpation in relation to clinical diagnosis and surgical procedure is discussed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ultrasonographic or anatomic observations or both were made of the kidneys of 26 dogs. The anatomic studies established precise correlations between the gross anatomic features of the organ and its ultrasonographic images obtained in transverse, sagittal, dorsal, and 2 oblique planes. Uniformily mottled echogenicity of the renal cortex could be clearly differentiated from the less echogenic renal medulla. In the middorsal plane, the papillae of the renal pyramids were directed towards the renal sinus. The bases of the pyramids were almost circular in outline in the midsagittal images and the renal crest was seen as an echogenic line. Although the renal sinus was highly echogenic, neither the renal pelvis nor its recesses were detected. The walls of each of the interlobar arteries provided echogenic parallel lines, passing in the renal recesses between the renal pyramids. Arcuate arteries were demonstrated at the corticomedullary junction and interlobular arteries were detected within the renal cortex.

For the right kidney, transverse images were obtained with the ultrasonographic transducer at the last 2 intercostal spaces; images in the dorsal, sagittal, and oblique planes were obtained with the transducer placed over the caudal extremity of the kidney. In the left kidney, transverse images were made with the transducers at, and caudal to, the last intercostal space; images in the dorsal, sagittal, and oblique planes were obtained with the transducer placed over the lateral border of the kidney. The use of such a protocol ensures that the entire organ is inspected and a diagnosis of either a normal or pathologic kidney is made.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Sonographic and anatomic observations were made of the kidneys of 23 Thoroughbreds or Standardbreds. In an in vitro study of 16 horses, precise correlations were established between the gross anatomic features of the kidneys and their sonographic appearance in images obtained in dorsal, sagittal, transverse, and transverse oblique anatomic planes. The renal cortex had a uniformly mottled echogenicity, and the renal medulla was relatively hypoechogenic, compared with the cortex. Acoustic anisotropy was observed in the cortex and medulla of the cranial and caudal extremities of each kidney. The distinctive renal pelvis was seen in the transverse plane as an echogenic pair of diverging lines that lead to the crescent shaped renal crest in the lateral half of the kidney. In images made in the sagittal plane, the renal pelvis was seen as a pair of parallel echogenic lines separated by the moderately echogenic line of the renal crest. The terminal recesses were best seen in the transverse oblique views of each extremity, where they appeared as moderately echogenic lines in the medulla of the cranial and caudal extremities. The interlobar vessels were represented as irregular echogenic lines in the medulla, and the arcuate vessels were seen as echogenic points at the corticomedullary junction. At the hilus, the renal artery or its branches was located cranial to the renal vein, which in turn was cranial to the position of the proximal portion of the ureter.

In an in vivo study of 7 horses, sonographic images of the right kidney were obtained in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse oblique anatomic planes in all horses, with the transducer positioned at the 15th, 16th, or 17th intercostal space; images in the dorsal plane were obtained, however, in only 3 of the horses. For the left kidney, sonographic images were obtained in each of the anatomic planes when the transducer was positioned at the 16th or 17th intercostal space or the paralumbar fossa; rectal location of the transducer gave images in the dorsal and sagittal planes.

In this study, a routine sonographic imaging protocol, using standard anatomic planes, enabled each kidney to be examined in its entirety. The protocol provided definition of normal renal sonographic anatomic features and may permit a more informed and accurate recognition of renal pathologic change.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Results of radiologic and anatomic studies of each cubital articulation (elbow) of a group of 50 adult cat cadavers indicated that a sesamoid bone may be located in a constantly present sesamoid cartilage associated with the tendon of origin of the supinator muscle. Radiography revealed a sesamoid bone in 40 of the 100 tendons of origin of the supinator muscles dissected from the elbows. The sesamoid bone articulated with the craniolateral aspect of the head of the radius, and the larger sesamoid cartilage, which contained the bone, articulated with the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus. Of several possible functions of the sesamoid cartilage (bone), it was considered that protection of the craniolateral part of the humeroradial articulation and maintenance of the complex anatomic system during joint movement were important. In radiographic views of the elbows of lame cats, the sesamoid bone should not be mistaken for a chip fracture or an osteocartilaginous loose body.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Sonographic and/or anatomic observations were made of the spleen in 27 dogs. Anatomic studies were used to establish precise correlations between the gross anatomic features of the organ and its ultrasonographic image. In 8 anesthetized dogs, ultrasonographic images of the spleen were made in dorsal, transverse, and sagittal planes. When it was incident to the ultrasonic beam, the splenic capsule was represented by a fine echogenic line that defined the boundaries of the organ. The splenic substance had a uniformly mottled echogenicity apart from the anechoic lumen of the splenic venous rami, which were detected at and near the hilus of the spleen. Less regularly, splenic arterial rami were detected at the hilus, but not within the splenic substance. Dorsal and transverse images were made with the ultrasonic transducer perpendicular to the left thoracic and abdominal wall at the 11th intercostal space and caudoventrad to it. Sagittal images were produced with the transducer's face directed craniad, placed parallel to the left lateral abdominal wall, and pushed under the costal arch. The adoption of such an ultrasonographic imaging protocol ensures that all of the spleen is inspected. A definitive opinion can then be given as to whether the spleen is normal or abnormal. Pathologic changes in the spleen must also be differentiated from changes in adjacent organs or structures.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the material properties of Slocum TPLO plates and assess the soft tissue reaction adjacent to these plates in dogs that had undergone tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Sample Population—3 new TPLO plates, 8 retrieved TPLO plates, and 1 new Synthes dynamic compression plate.

Procedures—Metallurgic analyses were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved plates and submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All of the TPLO plates had a 2-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite in various amounts. Residua, inclusions, and cavities were seen during microscopic examination of the plate surface. The major differences between new and retrieved TPLO plates were the presence of small gaps separating many inclusions from the surrounding matrix and the presence of various-sized pits on the surface of the retrieved plates. The dynamic compression plate had a nearly pure austenitic structure and was largely free from residua, inclusions, and cavities. Histologic examination of tissue samples obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved TPLO plates revealed intra- and extracellular particulate debris. Two types of particles (one consisting of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and iron and the other consisting of aluminum and silicon) were seen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results determined that new and retrieved TPLO plates were manufactured from 316L stainless steel and produced by a casting process, but not all plates met specifications for chemical composition of cast surgical implants (American Society for Testing Materials standard F745); tissues surrounding retrieved plates had evidence of adverse reactions, probably as a result of plate corrosion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research