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Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of orally administered L-lysine on clinical signs of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) infection and ocular shedding of FHV-1 in latently infected cats.

Animals—14 young adult, FHV-1-naive cats.

Procedure—Five months after primary conjunctival inoculation with FHV-1, cats were rehoused and assigned to receive 400 mg of L-lysine in food once daily for 30 days or food only. On day 15, all cats received methylprednisolone to induce viral reactivation. Clinical signs of infection were graded, and viral shedding was assessed by a polymerase chain reaction assay throughout our study. Peak and trough plasma amino acid concentrations were assessed on day 30.

Results—Fewer cats and eyes were affected by conjunctivitis, and onset of clinical signs of infection was delayed on average by 7 days in cats receiving L-lysine, compared with cats in the control group; however, significant differences between groups were not demonstrated. Significantly fewer viral shedding episodes were identified in the treatment group cats, compared with the control group cats, after rehousing but not following corticosteroidinduced viral reactivation. Mean plasma L-lysine concentration was significantly increased at 3 hours but not at 24 hours after L-lysine administration. Plasma arginine concentration was not significantly altered.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Once daily oral administration of 400 mg of L-lysine to cats latently infected with FHV-1 was associated with reduced viral shedding following changes in housing and husbandry but not following corticosteroid administration. This dose caused a significant but short-term increase in plasma L-lysine concentration without altering plasma arginine concentration or inducing adverse clinical effects. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:37–42)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings in 225 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism diagnosed over a 14-year period.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

220 dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism and 5 dogs with secondary hypoadrenocorticism (primary ACTH deficiency).

Procedure

We reviewed medical records of all dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism examined at The Animal Medical Center between 1979 and 1993 or at Tufts University, Foster Hospital for Small Animals, between 1987 and 1993.

Results

Dogs ranged from 4 months to 14 years old. Most (71%) were female, and female dogs had a significantly higher relative risk of developing hypoadrenocorticism than did males. Great Danes, Portuguese Water Dogs, Rottweilers, Standard Poodles, West Highland White Terriers, and Wheaton Terriers had a significantly higher relative risk of developing hypoadrenocorticism than did dogs of other breeds. Common owner complaints included lethargy, poor appetite, and vomiting, whereas lethargy, weakness, and dehydration were common abnormalities detected on physical examination. Serum biochemical testing at the time of diagnosis revealed moderate-to-severe azotemia and hyperphosphatemia in most dogs. In 99 of 172 (57.6%) dogs that had a pretreatment urinalysis performed, urine specific gravity was < 1.030 even though dogs were azotemic. Serum electrolyte changes included hyperkalemia (n = 215), hyponatremia (183), hypochloremia (94), and hypercalcemia (69). Five of the 220 dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism and the 5 dogs with secondary hypoadrenocorticism did not have hyperkalemia at time of diagnosis. In all dogs, ACTH stimulation testing revealed a low to low-normal baseline serum cortisol concentration with little to no rise after ACTH administration. Endogenous plasma ACTH concentration measured in 35 dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism was markedly high; whereas ACTH concentration was undetectable to low in the 5 dogs with secondary hypoadrenocorticism.

Clinical Implications

Hypoadrenocorticism is a rare disease in dogs, most commonly affecting young to middle-aged females; some breeds are at greater risk of developing the disease than others. In general, clinical signs are nonspecific and similar to manifestations of more common diseases. Serum electrolyte disturbances of hyperkalemia and hyponatremia are characteristic in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism, but concentrations may be normal in dogs with early or mild primary or secondary hypoadrenocorticism. Diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism is best confirmed by demonstration of a low baseline serum cortisol concentration with a subnormal or negligible response to ACTH administration. Determination of endogenous plasma ACTH concentrations is valuable in differentiating primary from secondary hypoadrenocorticism, particularly in dogs with normal serum electrolyte concentrations.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare serum and skin concentrations of enrofloxacin in dogs with pyoderma with those of clinically normal dogs and to evaluate concentrations in dogs with superficial versus deep pyoderma.

Animals

16 clinically normal dogs and 16 dogs with pyoderma.

Procedure

Enrofloxacin (approx 5 mg/kg of body weight, PO) was administered daily to all dogs. Serum samples and skin biopsy specimens were obtained on day 1 at 3 hours after drug administration and on day 3 immediately before and 3 hours after drug administration. Samples and specimens were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Morphometric analysis was performed on skin biopsy specimens to determine correlation between inflammatory cells and peak tissue enrofloxacin concentration on day 1.

Results

Morphometric analysis revealed high correlation between dermal inflammatory cell count and drug concentration in dogs with pyoderma.

Conclusions

At mean dosage of 5 mg/kg once daily, enrofloxacin tissue concentrations were significantly greater in dogs with pyoderma at 3 hours after pill administration. Enrofloxacin tissue concentration on day 3 at 3 hours after pill administration was 12.4 times the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration of enrofloxacin for Staphylococcus intermedius.

Clinical Relevance

In dogs with pyoderma, therapeutic tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin are reached as early as 3 hours after drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1599-1604)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To compare serum and skin concentrations of enrofloxacin in dogs with pyoderma with those of clinically normal dogs and to evaluate concentrations in dogs with superficial versus deep pyoderma.

Animals

16 clinically normal dogs and 16 dogs with pyoderma.

Procedure

Enrofloxacin (approx 5 mg/kg of body weight, PO) was administered daily to all dogs. Serum samples and skin biopsy specimens were obtained on day 1 at 3 hours after drug administration and on day 3 immediately before and 3 hours after drug administration. Samples and specimens were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Morphometric analysis was performed on skin biopsy specimens to determine correlation between inflammatory cells and peak tissue enrofloxacin concentration on day 1.

Results

Morphometric analysis revealed high correlation between dermal inflammatory cell count and drug concentration in dogs with pyoderma.

Conclusions

At mean dosage of 5 mg/kg once daily, enrofloxacin tissue concentrations were significantly greater in dogs with pyoderma at 3 hours after pill administration. Enrofloxacin tissue concentration on day 3 at 3 hours after pill administration was 12.4 times the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration of enrofloxacin for Staphylococcus intermedius.

Clinical Relevance

In dogs with pyoderma, therapeutic tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin are reached as early as 3 hours after drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:veterinary medicine-veterinary medicine)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts and determine whether histologic findings were associated with clinical features.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to obtain clinical data, including breed, age, sex, and lesion location. Microscopic sections and results of diagnostic imaging were reviewed.

Results—Odontogenic cysts were identified in 41 dogs between 1995 and 2010. There were 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 1 with a radicular cyst, 1 with a lateral periodontal cyst, and 1 with a gingival inclusion cyst. In addition, 9 dogs with odontogenic cysts that had clinical and histologic features suggestive of, but not diagnostic for, odontogenic keratocysts seen in people were identified. In all 9 dogs, these cysts were located in the maxilla and surrounded the roots of normally erupted teeth. Of the 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 23 had a single cyst, 5 had 2 cysts, and 1 had 3 cysts. Six cysts were associated with an unerupted canine tooth, and 30 were associated with an unerupted first premolar tooth (1 cyst was associated both with an unerupted canine tooth and with an unerupted first premolar tooth). Dentigerous cysts were identified in a variety of breeds, but several brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population during the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a variety of odontogenic cysts can occur in dogs. In addition, cysts that resembled odontogenic keratocysts reported in people were identified. We propose the term canine odontogenic parakeratinized cyst for this condition.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the body condition score (BCS) distribution for dogs examined at a teaching hospital and examine whether the BCS distribution for dogs with cancer differed significantly from the distribution for dogs without cancer.

Sample Population—1,777 dogs with cancer and 12,893 dogs without cancer.

Procedures—A retrospective prevalence case-control study was conducted that used medical records from 1999 to 2004. Information was collected on BCS (9-point system), age, breed, sex, neuter status, diagnosis, and corticosteroid administration. Body condition score at the time of examination for cancer (dogs with cancer) or first chronologic visit (dogs without cancer) was recorded. Logistic regression was used to compare BCS prevalence distributions between groups.

Results—The overall prevalence of obese dogs (BCS ≥ 7/9) was 14.8% (2,169/14,670), and the overall prevalence of overweight dogs (BCS ≥ 6/9 to < 7/9) was 21.6% (3,174/14,670). There was a significant difference in the BCS distribution between dogs with and without cancer, with a slightly lower prevalence of being overweight and obese in dogs with cancer. The prevalence of obese and overweight dogs varied with specific cancer types when compared with the prevalence for dogs without cancer.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in obesity prevalence among cancer types is suggestive of an incongruous effect of this variable on cancer expression or a differential effect of specific cancer types on weight status. Systematic use of BCSs will help elucidate the association between obesity and cancer development.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure concentrations of trazodone and its major metabolite in plasma and urine after administration to healthy horses and concurrently assess selected physiologic and behavioral effects of the drug.

ANIMALS 11 Thoroughbred horses enrolled in a fitness training program.

PROCEDURES In a pilot investigation, 4 horses received trazodone IV (n = 2) or orally (2) to select a dose for the full study; 1 horse received a vehicle control treatment IV. For the full study, trazodone was initially administered IV (1.5 mg/kg) to 6 horses and subsequently given orally (4 mg/kg), with a 5-week washout period between treatments. Blood and urine samples were collected prior to drug administration and at multiple time points up to 48 hours afterward. Samples were analyzed for trazodone and metabolite concentrations, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined; plasma drug concentrations following IV administration best fit a 3-compartment model. Behavioral and physiologic effects were assessed.

RESULTS After IV administration, total clearance of trazodone was 6.85 ± 2.80 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state was 1.06 ± 0.07 L/kg, and elimination half-life was 8.58 ± 1.88 hours. Terminal phase half-life was 7.11 ± 1.70 hours after oral administration. Horses had signs of aggression and excitation, tremors, and ataxia at the highest IV dose (2 mg/kg) in the pilot investigation. After IV drug administration in the full study (1.5 mg/kg), horses were ataxic and had tremors; sedation was evident after oral administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of trazodone to horses elicited a wide range of effects. Additional study is warranted before clinical use of trazodone in horses can be recommended.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine ultrasonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in healthy small-, medium-, and large-breed dogs and evaluate the relationships of thyroid gland size and volume with body weight and body surface area (BSA).

Animals—72 dogs of small (6 Toy and 6 Miniature Poodles), medium (12 Beagles), and large breeds (12 Akitas and 36 Golden Retrievers).

Procedure—Each dog's thyroid gland was examined ultrasonographically with a 10- to 5-MHz multifrequency linear-array transducer. Size, shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity of thyroid lobes were evaluated on longitudinal and transverse images. Thyroid lobe volume was estimated by use of the equation for an ellipsoid (π/6 [length × height × width]).

Results—Thyroid lobes appeared fusiform or elliptical on longitudinal images and triangular or round to oval on transverse images. In most dogs, thyroid lobes were hyperechoic or isoechoic, compared with surrounding musculature, and had a homogeneous echogenic pattern. Mean length, width, height, and volume of thyroid lobes were significantly greater in Akitas and Golden Retrievers, compared with findings in Beagles or Poodles; mean length, width, and height were significantly greater in Beagles, compared with findings in Poodles. Total thyroid gland volume correlated with body weight (r = 0.73) and BSA (r = 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the dog breeds examined ultrasonographically, thyroid lobe size and volume were more variable than shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity. The correlation of thyroid gland volume with BSA suggests that size of the dog, rather than breed, should be considered when assessing thyroid glands ultrasonographically.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinicopathologic features of the most common odontogenic tumors and focal fibrous hyperplasia (FFH) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—152 dogs evaluated for oral tumors of possible odontogenic origin at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis between 1995 and 2005.

Procedures—Information was collected from records, including dog breed, age, reproductive status, and location of lesion in the oral cavity. Histologic slides pertaining to each dog were reviewed by 3 investigators. Data regarding clinicopathologic features of the 3 most common lesions (canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma [CAA], peripheral odontogenic fibroma [POF], and FFH) were summarized.

Results—152 dogs with odontogenic tumors or FFH were identified. Sixty-eight (45%) dogs had CAA, 47 (31 %) had POF, 24 (16%) had FFH, and 13 (9%) had other odontogenic tumors. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma was present most commonly in the rostral aspect of the mandible, with POF and FFH more common in the rostral aspect of the maxilla. Males and females were equally represented among dogs with CAA and FFH. Castrated males were overrepresented among dogs with POF. Golden Retrievers, Akitas, Cocker Spaniels, and Shetland Sheepdogs were overrepresented among dogs with CAA. No breed predisposition was detected for FFH or POF. Dogs with FFH had a greater mean age at initial evaluation than did dogs with CAA or POF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CAA, POF, and FFH have distinct clinical patterns that may help clinicians and pathologists identify such lesions more readily.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of glutamine-supplemented and glutamine-free amino acid-based purified diets, compared with a dry expanded diet, on intestinal structure and function in a model that used cats with methotrexate-induced enteritis.

Animals

18 adult specific-pathogen-free cats.

Procedure

12 cats were given intragastric feedings of an amino acid-based purified diet supplemented with glutamine (7% [wt:wt]) or an isonitrogenous amount of glycine and alanine; 6 cats consumed a dry expanded diet. After 21 days, cats received methotrexate (MTX; 11 mg/kg of body weight, IV). Intestinal permeability testing was performed immediately before and 66 hours after MTX administration. Celiotomy was performed 72 hours after MTX administration for aseptic removal of mesenteric lymph nodes, collection of full-thickness intestinal biopsy specimens, determination of intestinal cellular proliferation, and collection of aortic and portal venous blood samples for determination of arteriovenous amino acid concentrations across the intestine.

Results

Administration of MTX was associated with severe enterotoxicosis manifested as diarrhea (8/12 cats), vomiting (12/12), and positive results for bacterial culture of mesenteric lymph nodes (12/12) in cats receiving the purified diets, independent of glutamine supplementation. Diet did not affect villus tip length and villus surface area in the small intestine or cellular proliferation. Administration of MTX was associated with significantly increased intestinal permeability, which was not attenuated by glutamine supplementation.

Conclusions

Feeding of a glutamine-supplemented amino acid-based purified diet was unable to preserve intestinal function in cats with MTX-induced enteritis.

Clinical Relevance

Intestinal morphologic alterations correlate poorly with intestinal function as measured by means of bacterial translocation and intestinal permeability. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:755-763)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research