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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the intracranial pressure-volume relationship (ICPVR) in dogs by use of an acute frontal-parietal mass lesion model.

Animals—7 healthy adult female Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia. A fiberoptic intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted to a depth of 1 cm in the parenchyma of the right frontal-parietal region of the brain. A Foley balloon-tipped catheter was placed in the epidural space of the left frontal-parietal area through a separate 1-cm burr hole. Baseline measurements were obtained with the balloon deflated. The balloon was then inflated incrementally with 0.5 mL of 0.9% NaCl solution every 10 minutes until ICP exceeded mean arterial blood pressure. Nonlinear regression analysis with 2-factor and 3-factor exponential equations was used to characterize the ICPVR.

Results—The mean baseline ICP was 11 mm Hg, with a 95% confidence interval of 2 to 20 mm Hg. The ICPVR was well characterized by 2-factor or 3-factor exponential equations for all dogs (R 2 > 0.93). Balloon volumes of > 1. 2 mL were associated with ICP > 20 mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Characterization of the ICPVR may provide clinically useful information regarding the safety of obtaining CSF from the atlanto-occipital space or implantation of brachytherapy catheters and for determining the need for decompressive craniectomy in dogs with acute intracranial disease. High ICP should be suspected in dogs that have an acute frontal-parietal mass lesion estimated to exceed 2% of the brain volume.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To compare the accuracy of anion gap (AG) and strong ion gap (SIG) for predicting unmeasured strong ion concentration in plasma and serum from horses.

Animals

6 well-trained Standardbred horses undergoing high-intensity exercise (experimental study) and 78 horses and ponies that underwent IV administration of lactic acid or endotoxin, and endurance, submaximal, or high-intensity exercise.

Procedure

Anion gap was calculated as AG = (Na+ + K+) − (Cl- + HCO 3), and SIG was calculated, using the simplified strong ion model, whereby SIG (mEq/L) = 2.24 × total protein (g/dl)/(1 + 106.65−pH) − AG. The relation between AG or SIG and plasma lactate concentration was evaluated, using linear regression analysis.

Results

Linear relations between plasma lactate concentration and AG and SIG were strong for the experimental study (r2 = 0.960 and 0.966, respectively) and the published studies (r2 = 0.914 and 0.925, respectively). The following relations were derived: AG = 1.00 × plasma lactate + 10.5; SIG = 0.99 × plasma lactate + 2.8. An AG > 15 mEq/L indicated an increased unmeasured anion concentration, whereas a SIG < −2 mEq/L indicated an increased unmeasured strong anion concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevence

Anion gap and SIG can be used to predict plasma lactate concentration in horses. AG is accurate and clinically useful for estimating unmeasured strong ion concentration in horses with total protein concentrations within or slightly outside reference range, whereas SIG is more accurate in horses with markedly abnormal total protein concentrations and those of various ages and with various concentrations of albumin, globulin, and phosphate. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:881–887)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate risk factors and to describe clinical and laboratory findings, surgical management, and postoperative outcome for cattle with intussusception.

Design

Hospital-based, case-control epidemiologic study and retrospective case series.

Sample Population

Medical records of cattle admitted to 17 veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America.

Procedure

Epidemiologic analysis of demographic data and detailed analysis of medical records for selected cattle.

Results

336 cattle with intussusception were identified, 281 had small intestinal, 7 had ileocolic, 12 had cecocolic, and 36 had colocolic intussusceptions. Sex and season were not significantly associated with cattle developing intussusception, whereas calves < 2 months old were at greater risk of developing small intestinal intussusception than older cattle. Analysis of medical records of 57 cattle with intussusception revealed that these cattle were mildly hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypocalcemic, azotemic, and hyperglycemic. Right flank laparotomy with a cow in a standing position, followed by intestinal resection and end-to end anastomosis, was the most common means of surgical correction. Overall survival rate (20/57; 35%) and postoperative survival rate (20/46; 43%) for cattle with intussusception were much lower than previously reported.

Clinical Implications

Although rare in cattle, intussusception was most common in calves < 2 months old. Survival rate for cattle treated for intussusception was low (<50%).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationships among traditional and laparoscopic surgical skills, spatial analysis skills, and video gaming proficiency of third-year veterinary students.

Design—Prospective, randomized, controlled study.

Sample—A convenience sample of 29 third-year veterinary students.

Procedures—The students had completed basic surgical skills training with inanimate objects but had no experience with soft tissue, orthopedic, or laparoscopic surgery; the spatial analysis test; or the video games that were used in the study. Scores for traditional surgical, laparoscopic, spatial analysis, and video gaming skills were determined, and associations among these were analyzed by means of Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (r s).

Results—A significant positive association (r s = 0.40) was detected between summary scores for video game performance and laparoscopic skills, but not between video game performance and traditional surgical skills scores. Spatial analysis scores were positively (r s = 0.30) associated with video game performance scores; however, that result was not significant. Spatial analysis scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic surgical skills scores. Traditional surgical skills scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic skills or spatial analysis scores.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated video game performance of third-year veterinary students was predictive of laparoscopic but not traditional surgical skills, suggesting that laparoscopic performance may be improved with video gaming experience. Additional studies would be required to identify methods for improvement of traditional surgical skills.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants’ entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills.

RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether mammary gland or colostral characteristics at calving could be used to predict colostral immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration or intramammary infection (IMI) and whether leakage of colostrum affects IgG1 concentration.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

113 multiparous Holstein cows.

Procedure

Cows were examined within 3 hours of calving, and mammary gland and colostral characteristics, colostral volume, somatic cell count, and concentrations of IgG1, fat, and protein were determined. Bacteriologic culture of mammary secretions was performed approximately 14 and 7 days before calving and at calving. Associations of gland and colostral characteristics with colostral IgG1 concentration, colostral volume, and IMI were examined.

Results

Thick or thin colostrum had higher IgG1 concentration than colostrum of intermediate viscosity. Colostrum from mammary glands that were firm had low IgG1 concentration. Colostral IgG1 concentration was weakly correlated with volume. Intramammary infection was likely to be detected if colostrum contained clots or blood or if the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score was ≥ 2. Somatic cell count was higher for glands with IMI than for uninfected glands, and CMT score was correlated with cell count.

Clinical Implications

Mammary gland and colostral characteristics were of little value in predicting IgG1 concentration. Our findings do not support recommendations that first milking colostrum that is thin (watery) or that is from cows producing large volumes not be fed to dairy calves. Colostral characteristics, particularly CMT score, were of value for predicting IMI. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1817-1823)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association