A 5-year-old 17.6-kg (38.7-lb) spayed female Shar-Pei cross was evaluated by a referral clinic for inappetence, vomiting, melena, polyuria, and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Physical examination revealed the dog was approximately 5% to 7% dehydrated and had a body temperature of 37.2°C (99.0°F), respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min, and heart rate of 160 beats/min. Mild discomfort was evident on abdominal palpation, and a mass in the mid portion of the abdomen was detected. Digital rectal examination confirmed the presence of black tarry feces consistent with melena.
Findings on CBC revealed marked leukocytosis (33,800 leukocytes/µL; reference range, 4,000 to
A 14-year-old spayed female Persian cat was referred for evaluation of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting of 3 days’ duration. The cat had a history of a chronic mild increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity. On physical examination, the cat was cachectic (body condition score, 1/5). A CBC revealed mild leukocytosis (28.4 × 109 leukocytes/L; reference range, 5.5 × 109 leukocytes/L to 19.5 × 109 leukocytes/L) characterized by moderate neutrophilia (27.2 × 109 neutrophils/L; reference range, 2.5 × 109 neutrophils/L to 12.5 × 109 neutrophils/L) and mild lymphopenia
A 3-year-old neutered male Cocker Spaniel was evaluated because of a 1-day history of trembling and dyspnea. The dog also had a 3-month history of once-weekly retching and vomiting after eating a large amount of food. On physical examination, the dog was tachypneic and dyspneic. Thoracic auscultation revealed vesicular lung sounds on the left and diminished lung sounds on the right. Heart sounds were muffled on the right. No murmur was auscultated. Abnormalities on CBC included mild anemia and mild leukocytosis, characterized by neutrophilia, monocytosis, and basophilia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed mildly low urea and chloride concentrations. Thoracic radiographs
Objective—To assess the perioperative and postoperative complications associated with use of vascular access ports (VAPs) in the jugular and lateral saphenous veins of dogs requiring frequent anesthetic episodes for radiation therapy.
Animals—40 dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital.
Procedures—VAPs were used in 23 dogs, and intravenous catheters inserted in a peripheral vein were used in 17 dogs. The frequency of perioperative and postoperative complications associated with VAP use and the frequency of infection associated with intravenous catheter use were recorded. Results of bacterial culture of VAP tips and amount of time required for VAP placement and removal and for anesthetic induction were also recorded.
Results—VAP-associated perioperative complications included malposition of the catheter tip in 4 of 23 (17.4%) dogs. The VAP-associated postoperative complications included seroma formation in 7 (30.4%) dogs, breakage of port-anchoring sutures in 3 (13.0%) dogs, suspected fatal catheter-related septicemia in 1 (4.3%) dog, and temporary partial withdrawal occlusion in 18 of 255 (7.1%) anesthetic episodes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of VAPs provided ready access in dogs receiving radiation therapy. Most complications were minor and self-limiting; however, a low risk of serious complications existed. Use of fluoroscopy to assess position of the catheter tip is recommended to decrease the risk of malposition. Immediate removal of a VAP is recommended when clinical signs of infection develop. Removal of a VAP at the completion of radiation therapy should be performed unless the benefit of continued vascular access outweighs the risks.
A 4-month-old sexually intact male Great Dane was referred because of regurgitation since being acquired at 3 months of age. The frequency of regurgitation had historically been approximately 3 to 4 episodes/d but had increased dramatically over the 24 hours prior to referral, with 20 to 30 episodes of regurgitation and 1 episode of vomiting being reported. The regurgitated material was described as containing food, liquid, and foam, and episodes were not related to feedings. The dog's appetite had always been good; however, the owners reported that the dog had been anorectic the morning of initial evaluation. Vaccination and
To compare the long-term outcomes of a ventral versus lateral surgical approach for mandibular and sublingual sialoadenectomy in dogs with a unilateral sialocele.
46 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of dogs that underwent unilateral sialoadenectomy between 1999 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed, and information was collected regarding signalment, clinical signs, historical treatment, swelling location, diagnostic imaging findings, sialoadenectomy approach, adjunctive treatments, intraoperative complications, hospitalization time, postoperative complications, recurrence, and contralateral sialocele development.
There were no significant differences in incidences of intraoperative complications, recurrence, or postoperative complications between dogs in which a lateral versus ventral approach was used. Clinically important intraoperative complications included iatrogenic tears in the oral mucosa, ligature slippage from the duct end, hemorrhage, and possible lingual nerve transection. Surgical experience was associated with the likelihood that intraoperative complications would develop. Suspected recurrence was reported in 2 of 26 (8%) dogs that underwent a lateral approach and 2 of 12 (17%) dogs that underwent a ventral approach. Hospitalization time was significantly shorter with the lateral approach than with the ventral approach. Postoperative complications had a short-term onset and occurred in 4 of 25 (16%) dogs that underwent a lateral approach and 3 of 12 (25%) dogs that underwent a ventral approach. Age and presence of a pharyngeal sialocele were associated with development of postoperative complications.
Long-term outcomes for ventral and lateral approaches to sialoadenectomy were favorable and appeared to be comparable. Further prospective study into potential associations of sialoadenectomy approach, age, and pharyngeal sialoceles on outcome is needed.
Objective—To describe clinical signs and results of treatment in cats with patellar luxation.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—42 cats in which patellar luxation had been diagnosed on the basis of results of palpation of the stifle joints.
Procedures—Degree of luxation was graded on a scale from 1 to 4, and severity of lameness was graded on a scale from 0 to 5. Radiographs of stifle joints were evaluated for signs of osteoarthritis. Long-term function was classified as poor, fair, good, or excellent.
Results—34 cats had bilateral luxation and 8 had unilateral luxation. Only 7 (17%) cats had a history of trauma. Mean age of the cats was 3.3 years, and mean weight was 4.26 kg (9.4 lb); 26 (62%) were domestic shorthairs. Seventy-three of the 76 (95%) affected joints had medial patellar luxation. Luxation grades could be assigned to 65 joints, with grade 2 (30 joints) and 3 (22 joints) luxation being most common. Lameness grades could be assigned to 73 joints, with grade 1 lameness (27 joints) most common. Outcome was excellent for 8 of 17 joints treated without surgery and for 23 of 35 joints treated surgically. Complications attributable to surgery were reported in 8 cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Patellar luxation should be considered as a cause of hind limb lameness in cats. Low-grade luxation can be associated with lameness of the same severity as high-grade luxation. Surgical correction of patellar luxation in cats with grade 2 or 3 lameness can result in a favorable outcome.
To determine the percentage of dogs surviving to hospital discharge and identify factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge among dogs undergoing surgery because of primary splenic torsion (PST).
Retrospective case series.
102 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of PST that underwent surgery between August 1992 and May 2014 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination and preoperative bloodwork, method of splenectomy, concurrent surgical procedures, perioperative complications, duration of hospital stay, splenic histopathologic findings, and details of follow-up were recorded. Best-fit multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify perioperative factors associated with survival to hospital discharge.
93 of the 102 (91.2%) dogs survived to hospital discharge. German Shepherd Dogs (24/102 [23.5%]), Great Danes (15/102 [14.7%]), and English Bulldogs (12/102 [11.8%]) accounted for 50% of cases. Risk factors significantly associated with death prior to hospital discharge included septic peritonitis at initial examination (OR, 32.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 502.0), intraoperative hemorrhage (OR, 22.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 289.8), and postoperative development of respiratory distress (OR, 35.7; 95% CI, 2.7 to 466.0). Histopathologic evidence of splenic neoplasia was not found in any case.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that the prognosis for dogs undergoing splenectomy because of PST was favorable. Several risk factors for death prior to discharge were identified, including preexisting septic peritonitis, intraoperative hemorrhage, and postoperative development of respiratory distress.