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  • Author or Editor: Outi M. Laitinen-Vapaavuori x
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Objective—To evaluate, by means of an owner questionnaire, long-term outcome and prevalence of chronic pain after cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—253 dogs with surgically treated CCL rupture.

Procedures—Data from surgical records of dogs that underwent surgical repair of CCL between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed. An owner questionnaire, including the validated Helsinki chronic pain index (HCPI), served to evaluate long-term outcome and prevalence of chronic pain after surgical repair by means of intracapsular, extracapsular, or osteotomy techniques. Additional questions inquired about recovery and rehabilitation after surgery, current well-being, medications, and adjunct treatments.

Results—Of 507 questionnaires, 272 (53.6%) were returned; 19 were excluded because of incomplete answers. Mean ± SD follow-up time was 2.7 ± 0.8 years (range, 1.3 to 4.5 years). Owners considered surgical outcome as excellent in 122 of 226 (54.0%) dogs, good in 97 (42.9%), fair in 0 (0%), and poor in 7 (3.1%). At follow-up, the mean ± SD HCPI for 206 dogs was 8.9 ± 6.3 (range, 0 to 24). Of these 206 dogs, 64 (31.1%) had an HCPI ≥ 12, indicating chronic pain. Mean HCPI in dogs with a good outcome (11.8 ± 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 10.6 to 12.9) was significantly higher than that for dogs with an excellent outcome (6.2 ± 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.2). Owner-reported postoperative lameness was significantly shorter after osteotomy techniques, compared with lameness duration after the intracapsular technique.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of owner assessment, long-term chronic pain was found in approximately 30% of dogs after CCL repair.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the recurrence rate after herniorrhaphy of canine perineal hernia (PH) using elevation of the internal obturator muscle (EIOM) or fascia lata graft (FLG) and assess how clinical signs related to defecation evolve during 12 months postoperatively.


66 client-owned male dogs undergoing PH surgery between March 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020.


Dogs were randomized into 2 groups (EIOM = 36; FLG = 30) applying 2 stratification factors: preoperative bladder location and the defecation signs score (DSS). Follow-up visits were at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The main outcome, the recurrence of PH was evaluated by rectal examination. We evaluated the noninferiority of FLG to EIOM from the difference in recurrence proportions between the techniques (95% CI), comparing the CI with a pre-defined noninferiority margin (15%). To evaluate defecation signs, the DSS was calculated from the owner questionnaire and assessed with a linear mixed model (P < .05 significant).


In 63 dogs attending the 12-month follow-up, the recurrence rate was 8.8% (3/34) in the EIOM and 10.3% (3/29) in the FLG group. The CI (–11.94% to 14.99%) was below the pre-defined margin, indicating the noninferiority of FLG. After surgery, the DSS decreased (P < .001), remaining low during the follow-up.


FLG was non-inferior to EIOM when considering recurrence. The DSS decreased postoperatively and complications were uncommon. FLG is a useful alternative for the treatment of canine PH.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate factors associated with the outcome of vital pulp therapy (VPT) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample—190 teeth in 138 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed; radiographs obtained before, immediately after, and during the last available follow-up examination for VPT were evaluated. Treatment was categorized as successful (with radiographic evidence of continued secondary dentin production, continued root formation in immature teeth, and absence of clinical and radiographic signs of apical periodontitis and internal or external inflammatory root resorption), having no evidence of failure (with signs for success fulfilled except the width of the apical periodontal ligament space, which could be wider than but no more than double the width of the periodontal ligament space in other areas), or failed (with radiographic evidence of pulp necrosis, apical periodontitis, or inflammatory root resorption). Associations between diagnostic or treatment-related variables and outcome were assessed with multinomial logistic regression.

Results—Overall, treatment was classified as successful for 162 of 190 (85%) teeth, including 23 (12%) teeth with no evidence of failure, and as having failed for 28 (15%) teeth. The overall success rate was 137 of 149 (92%) for teeth treated with mineral trioxide aggregate alone and 21 of 36 (58%) for teeth treated with Ca(OH)2 alone. Use of Ca(OH)2 and deep penetration of dressing material into the vital pulp were each significantly associated with increased odds of treatment failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that VPT with mineral trioxide aggregate was an effective option for use in crown reduction to treat malocclusion and for treatment of recent crown fractures in immature or mature permanent teeth.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association