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  • Author or Editor: Osamu Yamato x
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Objective—To determine the usefulness of canine RBC with high concentrations of potassium, reduced glutathione (GSH), and amino acid(ie, HK cells) for in vitro cultivation of Babesia gibsoni.

Animals—RBC were obtained from 3 dogs that had inherited HK cells and from 3 genetically unaffected dogs that, therefore, had RBC with lower potassium (LK) concentrations (ie, LK cells).

Procedures—First, B gibsoni were cultivated using HK or LK cells in alpha-modification of Eagle medium, consisting of Earle salts with glutamine and without ribosides, deoxyribosides, and sodium bicarbonate under a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 at 37 C. Second, parasites were cultivated with LK- or HK-cell lysates. Finally, HK cells were separated into 3 fractions (bottom, middle, top layers) by density gradient centrifugation, and B gibsoni were cultivated with each of the HK-cell fractions. In addition, the concentrations of free amino acids and reduced glutathione (GSH) in each HK-cell fraction were measured.

ResultsB gibsoni preferentially multiplied in HK-cell cultures rather than in LK-cell cultures. Furthermore, the addition of HK-cell lysate to the culture medium resulted in enhanced multiplication of the parasites. Higher multiplication of the parasites was observed in HK cells from the top layer, compared with HK cells from the middle and bottom layers. The HK cells from the top layer had higher concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, and GSH, compared with HK cells from the middle and bottom layer.

Conclusions—Canine HK cells are useful host cells for in vitro cultivation of B gibsoni, and the high concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, and GSH may result in enhancement of multiplication of the parasites in HK cells. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1520–1524)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 μg/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 μg/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether dogs given garlic extract developed hemolytic anemia and to establish the hematologic characteristics induced experimentally by intragastric administration of garlic extract.

Animals—8 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—4 dogs were given 1.25 ml of garlic extract/kg of body weight (5 g of whole garlic/kg) intragastrically once a day for 7 days. The remaining 4 contol dogs received water instead of garlic extract. Complete blood counts were performed, and methemoglobin and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione concentrations, percentage of erythrocytes with Heinz bodies, and percentage of eccentrocytes were determined before and for 30 days after administration of the first dose of garlic extract. Ultrastructural analysis of eccentrocytes was performed.

Results—Compared with initial values, erythrocyte count, Hct, and hemoglobin concentration decreased to a minimum value on days 9 to 11 in dogs given garlic extract. Heinz body formation, an increase in erythrocyte- reduced glutathione concentration, and eccentrocytes were also detected in these dogs. However, no dog developed hemolytic anemia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The constituents of garlic have the potential to oxidize erythrocyte membranes and hemoglobin, inducing hemolysis associated with the appearance of eccentrocytes in dogs. Thus, foods containing garlic should not be fed to dogs. Eccentrocytosis appears to be a major diagnostic feature of garlic-induced hemolysis in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1446–1450)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research