A 10-year-old 26-kg (57-lb) spayed female Boxer was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Pisa because of 2 episodes of syncope and progressive lethargy. When the dog was 1 year old, a systolic murmur was detected but was not further investigated by echocardiography. At the initial physical examination, the dog was cachectic (body condition score, 2/9) and had a dull mental status. It was unable to maintain a standing position. Rectal temperature was 39.6°C (103.28°F), mucous membranes were pale pink, and capillary refill time was 2 seconds. Respiratory rate was 36 breaths/min with normal auscultatory findings.
An 8-year-old 19-kg (41.8-lb) spayed female mixed-breed dog was referred to Istituto Veterinario di Novara medical center because of sudden onset of dyspnea. The dog had a 2-year history of chronic bronchopathy of unknown origin. The owner, a physician, treated the dog using a home therapy delivery protocol without veterinary medical consultation. The owner administered betamethasone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and albuterol (salbutamol; 0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for a period of 2 years. The dosage of albuterol was approximately 4 times the recommended therapeutic dosage1 for dogs (0.05 mg/kg [0.023
A 9-year-old 56-kg (123.2-lb) spayed female Newfoundland was referred to the Istituto Veterinario di Novara because of anorexia, lethargy, and a suspected supraventricular arrhythmia. Two weeks before the consultation, the dog had undergone ovariohysterectomy and gastropexy because of pyometra and gastric dilatation-volvulus. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the dog developed a supraventricular tachycardia, which was unsuccessfully treated with amiodarone (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h).
On physical examination, the dog had a poor body condition score (3/9) with normal mental status. Rectal temperature was mildly high (39.3°C [102.74°F]), mucous membranes were pale, and capillary refill time was > 2
A14-year-old 18-kg (39.6-lb) sexually intact male German Shorthaired Pointer was evaluated because of severe weakness and inability to maintain a standing position. The owner had found the dog outdoors in lateral recumbency, after it had been outside for several hours during the winter season. It had been recently determined that the dog had vestibular syndrome.
On physical examination, the dog was in lateral recumbency and had dull mentation. The dog's rectal temperature was 33.8°C (92.84°F); oral mucous membranes were pale pink, and capillary refill time was 2 seconds. The femoral pulses were weak and irregular, and the heart rate was
A 13-year-old 4.2-kg (9.2-lb) spayed female Maine Coon cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Pisa for cardiovascular evaluation after an acute episode of dyspnea associated with suspected cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The cat was initially treated with furosemide by the referring veterinarian. On physical examination, the cat had dull mentation and was paraparetic. The respiratory rate was 36 breaths/min, and the heart rate was 180 beats/min. Femoral pulse quality was weak bilaterally. Cardiac auscultation revealed no murmur or gallop sounds. Lung auscultation revealed no detectable abnormalities. The cat's rectal temperature was 37.1°C (98.8°F).