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  • Author or Editor: Olivier M. Lepage x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of multisite quantitative ultrasonography for noninvasive assessment of bone in horses.

Sample Population—12 healthy horses and both forelimbs from 8 clinically normal horses.

Procedure—For in vivo measurements, various regions of interest (ROI) were examined on the third metacarpal bone, radius, and tibia. Precision error for speed of sound (SOS) measurements was obtained by measuring each ROI of 4 horses 10 times with probe repositioning. Additionally, 3 operators measured each aspect of the third metacarpal bone of 6 horses 5 times each. For ex vivo measurements, third metacarpal bones were examined at 9 ROI, and SOS measurements were performed before and after soft tissue removal. One ROI of a single forelimb was subjected to 96 ex vivo measurements with 3 different contact media.

Results—The lateral aspect of the third metacarpal bone had significantly higher SOS values than the dorsal and medial aspect of the third metacarpal bone. No difference was obtained between SOS values of the lateral and medial aspect of the radius. The tibia had significantly higher SOS values than the lateral aspect of the radius and the dorsal and medial aspect of the third metacarpal bone. Intraoperator coefficients of variation ranged from 0.62 to 3.15%, and interoperator coefficients of variation ranged from 0.78 to 2.70%. Values of SOS were highest when silicone oil was used as the contact medium.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Speed of sound measurements obtained by quantitative ultrasonography in axial transmission mode can be used to precisely measure superficial cortical bone properties of third metacarpal bone, radius, and tibia in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1464–1469)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma on wounds on the distal aspect of the forelimb in horses.

Animals—6 mixed-breed 10- to 15-year-old mares.

Procedures—3 wounds were created on metacarpal regions in each of 6 horses (n = 36 wounds total). Eighteen wounds were treated with platelet-rich plasma and bandaged, whereas 18 control wounds were similarly bandaged with no prior topical treatment. Decrease in wound surface area and the required number of excisions of exuberant granulation tissue were recorded until complete healing. Tissue specimens were taken from wounds at 1 week for histologic examination and measurement of transforming growth factor-β1 concentrations and at closure for histologic examination, biomechanical evaluation, and measurement of collagen type I and type III mRNA.

Results—Platelet-rich plasma favored excessive development of granulation tissue and significantly slowed wound healing at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after surgery. Transforming growth factor-β1 had a 1.6-fold higher concentration in treated wounds, compared with untreated wounds. Histologic, biomechanical, and gene expression data did not differ significantly between treated and control wounds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of autologous platelet-rich plasma did not accelerate or improve the quality of repair of small granulating wounds on limbs of horses. This treatment may better suit wounds with massive tissue loss or, alternatively, chronic wounds that would benefit from a fresh source of mediators to accelerate the healing process.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare accuracy of 2 methods for injection of the podotrochlear bursa in horses.

Design—Observational study.

Animals—17 French Standardbreds.

Procedure—In each horse, contrast medium was injected into the podotrochlear bursa of 1 foot by use of a distal palmar approach with the needle inserted parallel to the sole (DPPS) and into the podotrochlear bursa of the other foot by use of a distal palmar approach to the navicular position (DPNP). Podotrochlear bursa injection was evaluated by means of radiographic examination in all horses and postmortem examination in 6.

Results—Contrast medium was successfully injected into the podotrochlear bursa in 6 of 16 feet in which the DPPS method was used and 14 of 17 feet in which the DPNP method was used; these results were significantly different. Failure was attributed to contrast medium invading the distal interphalangeal joint, contrast medium pooling palmar to the deep digital flexor tendon, contrast medium located in the podotrochlear bursa and the distal interphalangeal joint, contrast medium located in the podotrochlear bursa and the area palmar to the deep digital flexor tendon, and an inability to inject contrast medium despite adequate needle placement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the DPNP technique can be used successfully for injection into the podotrochlear bursa in horses. However, radiographic assessment should be used to confirm that material was injected into the bursa. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1524–1528)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate applicability of a human osteocalcin (OC) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for use with equine serum and compare it with a bovine radioimmunoassay (RIA) previously proven valid for such samples, and to describe the effect of type and breed of horses on serum OC concentration.

Animals

100 healthy horses of either sex, classified as type I or II (draught or warmblood, respectively). Each type was represented by 2 breed groups, each comprising 25 horses.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected in the morning, and the serum was separated. Osteocalcin was measured, using commercially available RIA and IRMA kits, according to the manufacturer's instructions. All samples were evaluated in duplicate.

Results

The human IRMA did not recognize equine OC. Significant variations in the bovine RIA results were observed between types of horses. Draught horses had lower OC concentration, compared with warmblood horses. Significant difference was not observed between breeds for type of horse. Sex had no influence on serum OC values, but age was a significant covariable for both types of horses.

Conclusions

No crossreactivity exists between the equine and human amino- and/or carboxy-terminus of OC, using this particular human IRMA kit. Difference in blood OC concentration exists between draught and warmblood types of horses.

Clinical Relevance

Use of this human IRMA kit is not valid for equine serum. Horse type must be taken into account when evaluating OC concentration in research or clinical situations, especially if small variations in OC concentration are expected. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:574–578)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of triamcinolone acetonide (0.09 mg/kg of body weight, im) on serum osteocalcin concentration was studied. Two groups of horses were investigated and included clinically normal horses (group 1, n = 5) and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (group 2, n = 5). Before treatment, results of a t-test did not reveal any significant difference in serum osteocalcin concentration between the 2 groups. After treatment, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in serum osteocalcin concentration was observed for both groups. Osteocalcin concentration in individual horses reached a minimum by 24 to 48 hours after treatment. In both groups of horses, serum osteocalcin response to glucocorticoid administration was similar. In 7 of 10 horses, return to pretreatment values was observed after 28 days. Pretreatment values for the other 3 horses were reached between 62 and 150 days.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research