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  • Author or Editor: Olga Martin-Jurado x
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Objective—To evaluate effects of racemic ketamine and S-ketamine in gazelles.

Animals—21 male gazelles (10 Rheem gazelles [Gazella subgutturosa marica] and 11 Subgutturosa gazelles [Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa]), 6 to 67 months old and weighing (mean±SD) 19 ± 3 kg.

Procedures—In a randomized, blinded crossover study, a combination of medetomidine (80 μg/kg) with racemic ketamine (5 mg/kg) or S-ketamine (3 mg/kg) was administered IM. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and oxygen saturation (determined by means of pulse oximetry) were measured. An evaluator timed and scored induction of, maintenance of, and recovery from anesthesia. Medetomidine was reversed with atipamezole. The alternate combination was used after a 4-day interval. Comparisons between groups were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank and paired t tests.

Results—Anesthesia induction was poor in 2 gazelles receiving S-ketamine, but other phases of anesthesia were uneventful. A dominant male required an additional dose of S-ketamine (0.75 mg/kg, IM). After administration of atipamezole, gazelles were uncoordinated for a significantly shorter period with S-ketamine than with racemic ketamine. Recovery quality was poor in 3 gazelles with racemic ketamine. No significant differences between treatments were found for any other variables. Time from drug administration to antagonism was similar between racemic ketamine (44.5 to 53.0 minutes) and S-ketamine (44.0 to 50.0 minutes).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of S-ketamine at a dose 60% that of racemic ketamine resulted in poorer induction of anesthesia, an analogous degree of sedation, and better recovery from anesthesia in gazelles with unremarkable alterations in physiologic variables, compared with racemic ketamine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of inhalation of isoflurane at end-tidal concentrations greater than, equal to, and less than the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) on bispectral index (BIS) in chickens.

Animals—10 chickens.

Procedures—For each chicken, the individual MAC of isoflurane was determined by use of the toe-pinch method. After a 1-week interval, chickens were anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations 1.75, 1.50, 1.25, 1.00, and 0.75 times their individual MAC (administered from higher to lower concentrations). At each MAC multiple, a toe pinch was performed and BIS was assessed and correlated with heart rate, blood pressure, and an awareness score (derived by use of a visual analogue scale).

Results—Among the chickens, mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.15 ± 0.20%. Burst suppression was detected at every MAC multiple. The BIS and awareness score were correlated directly with each other and changed inversely with increasing isoflurane concentration. Median (range) BIS values during anesthesia at 1.75, 1.50, 1.25, 1.00, and 0.75 MAC of isoflurane were 25 (15 to 35), 35 (25 to 45), 35 (20 to 50), 40 (25 to 55), and 50 (35 to 65), respectively. Median BIS value at extubation was 70 ± 9. Values of BIS correlated with blood pressure, but not with heart rate. Blood pressure changed with end-tidal isoflurane concentrations, whereas heart rate did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assessment of BIS can be used to monitor the electrical activity of the brain and the degree of unconsciousness in chickens during isoflurane anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research