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  • Author or Editor: Norton W. Milgram x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare preferences of dogs for 2 similar foods by use of 2 distinct methods (the cognitive palatability assessment protocol [CPAP] and the 2-pan test).

Animals—13 Beagles.

Procedure—6 dogs were trained in a 3-choice object-discrimination–learning task in which their nonpreferred objects were associated with a reward of a lamb-based or chicken-based food. The number of choices for each object was used to determine food preferences. Preference of the same foods was also assessed by use of a 2-pan test in which all 13 dogs were provided the 2 foods in identical bowls. The amount of each food consumed in 10 minutes was used to determine food preference.

Results—All dogs had a noticeable preference for the chicken-based food during the CPAP. Once established, preferences remained consistent and were not affected by satiety. The 2-pan test identified a preference for the chicken-based food in dogs with previous exposure to the food but only a weak and nonsignificant preference for the same food in dogs without previous exposure. Food preferences in the 2-pan test varied considerably. Total food consumption and the ability to detect a preference were reduced when dogs were fed prior to testing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The CPAP provides a reliable measure of food preference that requires few test subjects. The 2-pan test reveals similar preferences but with variability in data that requires larger numbers of subjects and is susceptible to effects from prior exposure and feeding of the test foods to the subjects. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1490–1496)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess effects of foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–rich fish oil on cognitive, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal function and other measures of development in healthy puppies.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—48 Beagle puppies.

Procedures—Puppies were assigned to 3 groups after weaning (n = 16/group) and received 1 of 3 foods (low-DHA, moderate-DHA, or high-DHA food) as their sole source of nutrition until 1 year of age. Visual discrimination learning and memory tasks, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiologic tests including blood and serum analysis, electroretinography, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed at various time points. Anti-rabies virus antibody titers were evaluated 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after vaccination at 16 weeks of age.

Results—Foods had similar proximate analysis results but varied in concentration of DHA from fish oil; the high-DHA food also contained higher concentrations of vitamin E, taurine, choline, and l-carnitine than did other foods. The high-DHA group had significantly better results for reversal task learning, visual contrast discrimination, and early psychomotor performance in side-to-side navigation through an obstacle-containing maze than did the moderate-DHA and low-DHA groups. The high-DHA group had significantly higher anti-rabies antibody titers 1 and 2 weeks after vaccination than did other groups. Peak b-wave amplitudes during scotopic electroretinography were positively correlated with serum DHA concentrations at all evaluated time points.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary fortification with fish oils rich in DHA and possibly other nutrients implicated in neurocognitive development following weaning improved cognitive, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in growing dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the efficacy of adrafinil, propentofylline, and nicergoline for enhancing behavior of aged dogs.

Animals—36 Beagles between 9 and 16 years old.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive adrafinil (20 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h; n = 12), propentofylline (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; 12), or nicergoline (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h; 12) for 33 days. Baseline behaviors in an open field and in kennels (home cage) were recorded before treatment. After treatment, behaviors in the open field were recorded 2 hours after drug administration on days 2, 15, and 28, and 10 hours after administration on days 7, 20, and 33. Behaviors in the home cage were recorded 2 and 7 hours after drug administration on days 4, 17, and 30.

Results—Treatment with adrafinil resulted in a significant increase in locomotion in each of the open-field tests and an increase in locomotion in the home cage. This latter increase was smaller and more variable than that in the open field. Locomotion was not affected by treatment with propentofylline or nicergoline. In the open field, sniffing decreased over time in all 3 groups, but the largest decline was observed in the propentofylline group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with adrafinil may improve the quality of life of aged dogs by increasing exploratory behavior and alertness. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1410–1414)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy cats and to assess QMR precision and accuracy.

Animals—Domestic shorthair cats (58 and 32 cats for trials 1 and 2, respectively).

Procedures—QMR scans of awake cats performed with 2 units were followed by administration of D2O tracer (100 mg/kg, PO). Cats then were anesthetized, which was followed by QMR and DXA scans. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration.

Results—QMR precision was similar between units (coefficient of variation < 2.9% for all measures). Fat mass, LBM, and TBW were similar for awake or sedated cats and differed by 4.0%, 3.4%, and 3.9%, respectively, depending on the unit. The QMR minimally underestimated TBW (1.4%) and LBM (4.4%) but significantly underestimated FM (29%), whereas DXA significantly underestimated LBM (9.2%) and quantitatively underestimated FM (9.3%). A significant relationship with D2O measurement was detected for all QMR (r 2 > 0.84) and DXA (r 2 > 0.84) measurements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QMR was useful for determining body composition in cats; precision was improved over DXA. Quantitative magnetic resonance can be used to safely and rapidly acquire data without the need for anesthesia, facilitating frequent monitoring of weight changes in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate data over a range of body compositions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy dogs and to assess QMR accuracy.

Animals—58 Beagles (9 months to 11.5 years old).

Procedures—QMR scans were performed on awake dogs. A D2O tracer was administered (100 mg/kg, PO) immediately before dogs were sedated, which was followed by a second QMR or DXA scan. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration.

Results—TBW, LBM, and FM determined via QMR were not significantly different between awake or sedated dogs, and means differed by only 2.0%, 2.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. Compared with results for D2O dilution, QMR significantly underestimated TBW (10.2%), LBM (13.4%), and FM (15.4%). Similarly, DXA underestimated LBM (7.3%) and FM (8.4%). A significant relationship was detected between FM measured via D2O dilution and QMR (r 2 > 0.89) or DXA (r 2 > 0.88). Even though means of TBW and LBM differed significantly between D2O dilution and QMR or DXA, values were highly related (r 2 > 0.92).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QMR was useful for determining body composition in dogs and can be used to safely and rapidly acquire accurate data without the need for sedation or anesthesia. These benefits can facilitate frequent scans, particularly in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate assessment over a range of body compositions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research