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  • Author or Editor: Norman F. Cheville x
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Objective—To characterize the early cellular immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis ( MAP) infection and evaluate the development of granulomatous inflammation at the SC injection site in experimentally inoculated calves.

Animals—Forty-eight 4-week-old calves.

Procedure—Calves received an SC injection of MAP strain 19698 (n = 25), sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (20), or a commercial paratuberculosis vaccine (3); the inoculation site tissue and associated draining lymph node were excised at postinoculation day (PID) 0 (n = 36), 7 (14), 14 (6), 21 (8), and 60 (32). Sections of inoculation site tissues were evaluated immunohistochemically for T-cell subsets; lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs) were assessed for T-cell surface markers and for intracellular interferon-γ via flow cytometry.

Results—At MAP inoculation sites, calves developed mild, focal granulomatous inflammation by PID 7; by PID 60, areas of inflammation contained macrophages with numerous lymphocytes. Compared with control calves, there was increased antigen-specific LNMC proliferation in MAP- and vaccine- inoculated calves at PID 60, although proliferation among lymphocyte subsets was not significantly different between MAP-inoculated and control calves; in vaccine-inoculated calves, CD4+ T-cells predominated. In MAP-inoculated and control calves, antigenspecific interferon-γ production by LNMCs did not differ significantly; vaccine-inoculated calves had marked interferon-γ expression by CD4+ T-cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In calves, SC administration of MAP resulted in granulomatous inflammation at inoculation sites and an antigen-specific T-cell proliferative response. Results suggest that this experimental system can be used to reproducibly generate antigen-specific T-cells during MAP infection for functional analysis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:474–482)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To develop a method for inducing acute leptospirosis in dogs.

Animals—31 nine-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Beagles were randomly assigned to 2 inoculation groups or a control group. Dogs were inoculated on 3 successive days by conjunctival instillation of 5 X 107 cells of Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 (12 dogs) or strain RM 52 (14 dogs). Control dogs (n = 5) were similarly inoculated with sterile leptospiral culture media. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic variables, anti-leptospiral antibody titers, and evidence of leptospires in tissues and body fluids were evaluated. Dogs were euthanatized and necropsied on days 7, 14, 22, or 28 after inoculation or as required because of severe illness.

Results—Clinical signs in infected dogs included conjunctivitis, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, and icterus. Consistent clinicopathologic alterations included azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased anion gap, hyperbilirubinemia, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Leptospires were cultured from the kidneys (11/12), urine (6/9), aqueous humor (9/12), blood (12/12), and liver (12/12) of dogs inoculated with strain 82. Only 3 of 14 dogs became infected after inoculation with strain RM 52. Histopathologic lesions in infected dogs included interstitial nephritis, renal tubular degeneration and necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hepatic edema and perivasculitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Conjunctival exposure to L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 resulted in acute leptospirosis in all inoculated dogs, but only 3 of 14 dogs inoculated with strain RM 52 became infected. This method of infection by serovar grippotyphosa can be used to study the pathogenesis and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1100–1107)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research