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  • Author or Editor: Norbert Nowotny x
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Objective—To evaluate use of the acupuncture meridian test for detection of recent or recently reactivated equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in horses with decreased performance.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—40 horses.

Procedure—Physical and neurologic examinations were performed, and acupuncture points on the bladder meridian were tested for sensitivity reactions in case and control horses. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to determine whether EHV-1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) DNA could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Complement fixation (CF) tests for detection of antibodies against EHV-1 and EHV-4 and virus neutralization (VN) tests for detection of antibodies against EHV-1 were performed on paired serum samples obtained 3 weeks apart.

Results—There was a significant difference in skin sensitivity in the cervical, sacral, and gluteal regions and flank between case and control horses. By use of the meridian test, all case horses were sensitive to manipulation of all acupuncture points believed to be associated with EHV infections, whereas only a few control horses were sensitive at an occasional point. Equine herpesvirus type 1 or EHV-4 viremia was not detected in any horses. Mean ± SD VN antibody titers against EHV-1 were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Mean ± SD CF antibody titers against EHV-1 obtained 3 weeks after the initial samples were higher in case horses than control horses; however, unequivocal seroconversion was not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the meridian test in case horses were associated with sensitivity reactions similar to those detected by physical and neurologic examinations; however, an unequivocal association with EHV-1 or EHV-4 infection was not detected. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:554–559)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine endometrial regeneration in postpartum mares by analysis of histologic features, apoptosis and cell proliferation markers, lectin binding, cytokines, and progesterone and estrogen receptors in endometrial biopsy specimens.

Animals—9 postpartum mares.

Procedures—Mares were examined on postpartum days 1, 9, and 16, and uterine biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic examination. Lectin binding was analyzed histochemically, and expressions of Ki-67 antigen (proliferation marker), lysozyme, and caspase 3 (apoptosis marker) were studied immunohistochemically. Gene expressions for cytokines (interleukin-1β, -6 and -8 and tumor necrosis factor-α), cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin-E-synthase, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were determined by use of quantitative real-time PCR assay.

Results—On day 1, neutrophils predominated but by day 9 had largely been replaced by lymphocytes and macrophages. High numbers of cells with staining for caspase 3 were found on day 1, but numbers decreased by day 9. In contrast, the number of cells with staining for Kiel 67 antigen increased between days 1 and 9. Lectin binding to the endometrium changed over time. Relative mRNA expressions for cytokines and prostaglandin-E-synthase did not differ among days. Expressions of progesterone and estrogen receptors were minimal on day 1 and increased by day 9.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Early postpartum endometrial cells underwent apoptosis, but during the second week, postpartum proliferation of cells predominated. Lectin binding reflected changes in endometrial glycocalyx patterns. Increased expression of estrogen receptors allowed the endometrium to respond to estrogen during foal heat, and in subsequent diestrus, the endometrium was able to respond to progesterone.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research