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  • Author or Editor: Norbert Chirase x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the clinical, clinicopathologic, and histologic effects of aerosolized feedyard dust that contains natural endotoxins on adult sheep.

Animals—Eighteen 3-year-old Saint Croix sheep.

Procedure—A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. There were 2 treatment groups (dust-endotoxin group, n = 9; control group, 9). Aerosolized feedyard dust was provided continuously during a 4-hour period for each application (once in week 1, 3 times in week 2, and 7 times in week 3) to sheep in a semiairtight tent. All sheep were euthanatized and necropsied 8 hours after the treatment group received the last dust treatment. Variables measured before and after each dust treatment were rectal temperature, total WBC count, and concentrations of fibrinogen and haptoglobin.

Results—Mean amount of dust administered during each treatment was 451 g/4 h. Filter collection indicated 51 mg of dust/m3 and 7,423 ng of endotoxin. Mean rectal temperature at 8 hours (40.4 C) and mean WBC counts 12 and 24 hours after dust treatment were significantly higher for the treated group than the means of the respective variables for the control group. Similar responses were observed with repeated dust-endotoxin treatments; however, with each subsequent treatment, there was a diminished response. Sheep in the treatment group had generalized alveolar septal thickening and hypercellularity.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Feedyard dust induced a temporary febrile response and leukocytosis in sheep in the treatment group. Exposure to dust that contains endotoxins may be a stressor preceding acute infectious respiratory tract disease of marketed sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:28–35)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of transportation stress on serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers of calves.

Animals—105 crossbred beef steer calves (mean [± SD] body weight, 207 ± 21.2 kg).

Procedure—Calves were assembled at 1 location in Tennessee, and pretransit (day –3) blood samples were collected. Calves were allotted randomly by body weight into 2 groups. Calves were transported 1,930 miles to a feedlot in Texas, and 1 group received tilmicosin phosphate (33 µg/kg, SC) upon arrival. Calves were weighed and blood samples collected on the day of arrival (day 1) and on days 15, 22, and 28. Calves were scored daily for signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Serum total antioxidant capacity (TACA) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined.

Results—Transportation stress significantly decreased mean serum TACA concentrations (from 147 ± 31.2 U/mL to 133 ± 20.1 U/mL) and significantly increased serum MDA concentrations (from 10.9 ± 18.3 µg/mL to 30.2 ± 50.5 µg/mL). Calves that died had a 43% increase in serum MDA concentration on day 1, compared with calves that lived (42.2 ± 67.0 µg/mL vs 29.4 ± 49.4 µg/mL, respectively). Calves that had ≥ 3 episodes of BRD had 2-fold higher serum MDA concentrations on day 1 than healthy calves. Tilmicosintreated calves had a 20.8% significantly greater average daily gain and significantly greater serum TACA concentration than nontreated calves on day 28.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transportation stress increases serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers that are related to episodes of BRD and mortality in calves. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:860–864)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research