Case Description—A 7-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of pericardial effusion.
Clinical Findings—The dog had a history of decreased appetite and exercise intolerance of 3 days' duration. Thoracic radiography performed by the referring veterinarian revealed a large cardiac silhouette. Heart sounds were muffled. Echocardiographic findings were indicative of severe pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade; no pleural effusion was identified. Pericardiocentesis yielded a considerable amount of chylous fluid. A diagnosis of chylopericardium in the absence of pleural effusion was made.
Treatment and Outcome—Conservative management was not effective, and subtotal pericardectomy and thoracic duct ligation were recommended. Surgery was postponed by the owners for 25 days, at which time the dog had both chylopericardium and chylothorax. The dog underwent subtotal pericardectomy and thoracic duct ligation; to delineate the thoracic duct, intraoperative lymphangiography was performed by injection of a radiopaque contrast agent directly into a mesenteric lymph node and subsequent injection of methylene blue solution into another mesenteric lymph node. Surgical treatment resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs and pleural effusion.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the development of chylopericardium prior to development of chylothorax in a dog. Treatment with thoracic duct ligation and pericardectomy resulted in complete resolution of the effusion and clinical signs.
Objective—To evaluate the safety, with respect to
the development of gastric ulcers and erosions, of
concurrent administration of meloxicam and dexamethasone
for 3 days to healthy dogs.
Animals—20 conditioned purpose-bred research
Procedure—Seven days prior to treatment, dogs
were anesthetized for endoscopic evaluation of the
upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract (ie, the gastric
and duodenal mucosa). Five regions of the gastroduodenal
area were scored by 2 investigators.
Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment
groups as follows: saline-saline, dexamethasonesaline,
saline-meloxicam, and dexamethasone-meloxicam
groups. On days 1, 2, and 3, dogs received either
dexamethasone or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution injections
SC twice daily. On days 2, 3, and 4, dogs
received either meloxicam or saline solution injections
SC once daily. On day 2, dogs were anesthetized
for a sham surgery (ie, electrostimulation).
On day 5, the gastroduodenal area of each dog was
reevaluated by use of endoscopic evaluation and histologic
examination of biopsy specimens.
Results—The total endoscopic score of the dexamethasone-
meloxicam group was significantly greater
than the scores of the other groups. The dexamethasone-
saline group had a mean cumulative score that
was significantly greater than the saline-meloxicam or
saline-saline groups. Endoscopic scores of the salinemeloxicam
group were not significantly different from
scores of the saline-saline group. No significant differences
in histologic findings were found between
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy
dogs, meloxicam appears to be safe with regard to
adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
Concurrent administration of dexamethasone and
meloxicam is more likely to cause gastric erosions
than meloxicam administration alone. (Am J Vet Res 2003;63:1369–1375)
Objective—To compare overground and treadmill-based gaits of dogs.
Animals —5 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—To obtain dynamic gait data, 30 retroreflective markers were affixed bilaterally to specific regions of the hind limbs and pelvis of each dog. For each dog, 3-D joint motion data (sagittal [flexion and extension], transverse [internal and external rotation], and frontal [abduction and adduction] planes of motion) for the hip, femorotibial, and tarsal joints were acquired during walking and trotting through a calibrated testing space overground or on a treadmill. Comparison of data was performed via generalized indicator function analysis and Fourier analysis.
Results—Both overground and treadmill-based gaits produced similar waveforms in all planes of motion. Fourier analysis revealed no difference between overground and treadmill-based gaits in the sagittal plane of motion; however, small differences were detected between overground and treadmill-based gaits in the other 2 planes of motion. Additionally, femorotibial joint motion during walking did not differ among planes of motion. Generalized indicator function analysis was able to detect differences between overground and treadmill-based gait waveforms in all planes of motion for all joints during walking and trotting.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, overground and treadmill-based gaits produced similar waveform shapes. Of the 3 planes of motion evaluated, only sagittal plane kinematic gait data were unaffected by mode of ambulation as determined via Fourier analysis. Sagittal kinematic gait data collected from dogs during overground or treadmill-based ambulation were comparable. However, analysis methods may affect data comparisons.
Objective—To characterize injuries (on the basis of type and severity of injury and affected region of the body) among dogs participating in agility training and competition events and examine associations between injury characteristics and perceived causes of injury.
Animals—3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials.
Procedures—A retrospective electronic survey was developed to investigate demographic factors for dogs and handlers, frequency of participation in agility training and competition, and perceived causes and characteristics of injuries acquired by dogs during agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Associations between cause and anatomic site or type of injury and between injury severity (mild vs severe) and setting (competition vs practice) were investigated.
Results—Surveys were received from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally. Handler-reported data indicated 1,209 of 3,801 (32%) dogs had ≥ 1 injury; of 1,523 analyzed injuries, the shoulder (349 injuries), back (282), and neck (189) regions and phalanges (202) were predominantly affected. Soft tissue injuries (eg, strain [muscle or tendon injury; 807], sprain [ligament injury; 312], and contusion ) were common. Injuries were most commonly incurred during interactions with bar jumps, A-frames, and dog walk obstacles (260, 235, and 177 of 1,602 injuries, respectively). Anatomic site and type of injury were significantly associated with perceived cause of injury.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings provided a basis for further experimental studies to identify specific mechanisms of various types of injury in dogs that participate in agility activities.
Animals—3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials.
Procedures—A retrospective electronic survey was used to investigate potential risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Variables evaluated included demographic information for handlers and dogs, exposure variables (eg, frequency of agility practice and competition in the past year), and use of preventive measures intended to keep dogs fit for agility (warmup, cooldown, or conditioning exercises; alternative therapeutic treatments [eg, acupuncture, massage, or chiropractic care]; or dietary supplement products).
Results—Data were collected from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally; 1,209 (32%) dogs incurred ≥ 1 injury. Previous injury (OR, 100.5), ≤ 4 years of agility experience for dogs (OR, 1.5), use of alternative therapeutic treatments (OR, 1.5), and Border Collie breed (OR, 1.7) were associated with increased odds of injury. Handlers having 5 to 10 or > 10 years of experience (OR, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively) and dogs having > 4 years of experience in the sport (OR, 0.6) were associated with decreased odds of injury.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Specific factors were associated with agility-related injuries in dogs. Educational prevention strategies should target at-risk populations in an effort to reduce potential injuries. Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associated with agility-related injuries.
Objective—To determine effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on healing of wounds in the distal portion of the forelimb in horses.
Procedures—Five 6.25-cm2 superficial wounds were created over both third metacarpi of 6 horses. Forelimbs were randomly assigned to treatment (ESWT and bandage) or control (bandage only) groups. In treated limbs, each wound was treated with 625 shock wave pulses from an unfocused electrohydraulic shock wave generator. In control limbs, each wound received sham treatment. Wound appearance was recorded weekly as inflamed or healthy and scored for the amount of protruding granulation tissue. Standardized digital photographs were used to determine the area of neoepithelialization and absolute wound area. Biopsy was performed on 1 wound on each limb every week for 6 weeks to evaluate epithelialization, fibroplasia, neovascularization, and inflammation. Immunohistochemical staining for A smooth muscle actin was used to label myofibroblasts.
Results—Control wounds were 1.9 times as likely to appear inflamed, compared with treated wounds. Control wounds had significantly higher scores for exuberant granulation tissue. Treatment did not affect wound size or area of neoepithelialization. No significant difference was found for any of the histologic or immunohistochemical variables between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with ESWT did not accelerate healing of equine distal limb wounds, but treated wounds had less exuberant granulation tissue and appeared healthier than controls. Therefore, ESWT may be useful to prevent exuberant granulation tissue formation and chronic inflammation of such wounds, but further studies are necessary before recommending ESWT for clinical application.
Case Description—A 1.5-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was admitted for hind limb locomotor difficulties and signs of pain along the lumbar portion of the vertebral column. At the time of referral, the cat was paraparetic with deficits in the spinal reflexes of the hind limbs. Neuroanatomic localization was at the L6-S2 spinal cord segments, corresponding approximately to the region of the L4-L6 vertebral bodies.
Clinical Findings—Radiography revealed a mixed osteolytic-proliferative lesion within the body of L5 involving the cranial end plate, as well as punctate radiolucencies in the distal portion of the femur. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary spinal cord lesion along with extensive meningeal and nerve root lesions in the area of the L4-L6 vertebral bodies. Cytologic analysis of a bone marrow aspirate from the right trochanteric fossa revealed a substantial plasma cell infiltrate. Analysis of CSF revealed a high protein concentration and morphologically abnormal plasma cells. Urine, but not serum, protein electrophoresis revealed a sharp γ-globulin peak consistent with a monoclonal band of Bence-Jones proteins. The diagnosis was multiple myeloma.
Treatment and Outcome—The cat was treated with melphalan and prednisolone. A rapid clinical response was reported, and by week 3 after diagnosis, the cat's locomotion and behavior had normalized. However, by month 4, multifocal neurologic deficits were evident. The cat was euthanized at 9 months because of tetraparesis and substantial weight loss.
Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, this is the first report of myeloma in a cat that had electrophoretically detectable light chain proteinuria but lacked a detectable serum monoclonal gammopathy.
Objective—To evaluate the association between preoperative carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs.
Design—Prospective multicenter study.
Procedures—At 7 veterinary hospitals, swab specimens were obtained from the pharynx, nares, rectum, and skin of dogs admitted for TPLO. Specimens were submitted for culture of MRSP. For each dog, information regarding preoperative and postoperative antimicrobial administration, comorbidities, contact with other dogs, and whether the dog developed an SSI was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify variables associated with preoperative and postoperative MRSP colonization and the development of an SSI.
Results—Of the 549 study dogs, 24 (4.4%) were identified as MRSP carriers before TPLO and 37 (6.7%) developed an SSI after TPLO. Bacteriologic culture was performed on specimens obtained from 32 of the 37 SSIs, and MRSP was isolated from 11 (34%). Carriers of MRSP (OR, 6.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12 to 21.4) and Bulldogs (OR, 11.1; 95% CI, 2.07 to 59.3) were at risk for development of an SSI after TPLO, whereas postoperative administration of antimicrobials (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.91) appeared to protect against development of an SSI.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that carriage of MRSP were a risk factor for development of an SSI after TPLO and measures to rapidly identify and treat MRSP carriers are warranted. Postoperative administration of antimicrobials protected against development of an SSI after TPLO.