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  • Author or Editor: Nobuo Tsunoda x
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Ceruloplasmin (Cp) was isolated from fresh equine plasma by precipitation, cellulose chromatography, and improved ion-exchange chromatography. Purified equine Cp is a glycoprotein having a molecular weight of approximately 115,000. In electrophoresis, equine Cp migrated to the α1-globulin region, its isoelectric point was about 4.15 and consisted of about 890 amino acid residues.

Serum Cp concentration was measured by use of the single radial immunodiffusion method. In clinically normal horses, the mean (± sd) serum Cp concentration of newborn foals was 2.87 ± 0.40 mg/ml and that of 3-month-old foals was 5.02 ± 0.92 mg/ml, which was similar to the adult value. It reached a peak of 6.06 ± 0.74 mg/ml in 2-year-old horses. The Cp concentration in mares was not statistically different for the perinatal period, but it decreased immediately before and after delivery.

Concentration of Cp increased at 6 days after im administration of turpentine oil, castration, or jejunojejunostomy in adult horses, and increased to peak values twice as high as baseline values at 7 to 14 days, returning to baseline values at 28 days after treatment.

We concluded that equine serum Cp is an acute-phase reactive protein increased in the intermediary or later phase of acute inflammation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Equine α1-acid glycoprotein (α1 ag) was isolated from equine serum by successive ammonium precipitation, anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies, and gel filtration. Purified equine α1 ag had a molecular weight of 46,000 ± 1,000, and contained 31.4% carbohydrate. Gel isoelectric focusing revealed an isoelectric point range of 2.8 to 3.7. With immunoelectrophoresis, it was found that α1 ag migrated to the α1-globulin region.

Single radial immunodiffusion was used for quantitative measurement of α1 ag in equine serum. In clinically normal foals, serum α1 ag was undetectable (≤ 20 ng/ml) in ≤ 7-day-old foals, but was detected by 14 days. The α1 ag concentration (mean ± sd) increased to reach mean adult values of 99.23 ± 26.90 μg/ml by 1 year of age. The α1 ag concentration in pregnant mares decreased at 2 to 3 months before parturition, then gradually increased until 1 day after parturition, when a brief decrease was observed. The concentration increased again at 2 weeks after foaling, then a decrease was observed, after which the α1 ag concentration increased again by 2 to 4 months after parturition.

The concentration of serum α1 ag quickly rose to peak values 2 to 3 days after castration and jejunojejunostomy in adult horses, returning to baseline values by 14 to 28 days after surgery. The α1 ag was concluded to be an acute-phase reactive protein in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the histologic diversity of epidermal laminae in hooves from horses without clinical signs of laminitis.

Sample Population—Formalin-fixed samples of stratum internum obtained from the mid region of the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall from the forelimbs of 35Thoroughbred cadavers (including foals [n = 9], yearlings [5], 2 year olds [6], racing horses [5], and mares [10]).

Procedures—Paraffin-embedded laminar tissues were stained with H&E for the evaluation of architectural variety of primary epidermal laminae (PEL) and secondary epidermal laminae (SEL). For detection of cytokeratin (CK) expression in epidermal laminae, immunohisto-chemical staining was performed by use of anti-CK14 and anti-CK8.12 antibodies.

Results—The morphology of the PEL, SEL, and tips of PEL was classified into 3, 5, and 3 patterns, respectively. Differences in the predominant type of SEL depended on their location with respect to the laminar interface. In SEL attached to the sides of PEL, the basal cells were immunoreactive to CK14 and CK8.12, which was interpreted as a normal pattern. In some SEL at the tips of PEL, the suprabasal cells expressed CK14, CK8.12, or both, which constituted a hyperplastic pattern.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The histologic diversity of epidermal laminae from hooves of Thoroughbreds was attributable to the combined morphology of PEL and SEL. Detection of hyperplastic changes in the laminar interface does not justify a diagnosis of laminitis because such changes can develop independent of clinical disease. The classification system used here should aid investigators in making a more accurate histologic evaluation of laminae.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research