Objective—To determine the accuracy and precision
of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring
bone mineral density in horses in situ.
Sample Population—12 randomly selected forelimbs
from 12 horses.
Procedure—Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and
DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest
(ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density
measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression
analysis was used to determine the correlation
between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional
metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine
the coefficient of variation for both techniques.
Results—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone
density were significantly associated at multiple ROI.
The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone
thickness improved these associations. Repeated
measurements had a low coefficient of variation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dual energy
x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and
precisely measure the bone density in the equine
metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of
bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy
x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate
the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or
density changes from bone remodeling that develop
prior to stress fractures. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;
Objective—To determine whether routine vaccination
induces antibodies against bovine thyroglobulin
and autoantibodies against canine thyroglobulin in
Animals—20 healthy research Beagles and 16 healthy
Procedure—For the research Beagles, 5 dogs were
vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine and a rabies
vaccine, 5 dogs received only the multivalent vaccine,
5 dogs received only the rabies vaccine, and 5 dogs
were unvaccinated controls. The multivalent vaccine
was administered at 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 52
weeks of age and every 6 months thereafter. The
rabies vaccine was administered at 16 and 52 weeks
of age and then once per year. Blood was collected
from all dogs at 8, 16, and 26 weeks of age and then
4 times yearly. Assays for antibodies directed against
bovine and canine thyroglobulin were performed prior
to and 2 weeks after each yearly vaccination. For the
pet dogs, blood was collected prior to and 2 weeks
after 1 vaccination.
Results—In the research Beagles, there was a significant
increase in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies in
all vaccinated dogs, compared with control dogs.
There was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin
antibodies in the 2 groups of dogs that
received the rabies vaccine but not in the group that
received the multivalent vaccine alone. In the pet
dogs, there was a significant increase in anti-canine
thyroglobulin antibodies after vaccination but no significant
change in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recent vaccination
may result in increased anti-canine thyroglobulin
antibodies. Whether these antibodies have a deleterious
effect on canine thyroid function is unknown.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:515–521)
Objective—To evaluate the clinicopathologic features, response to treatment, and risk factors associated with idiopathic neutropenia in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with idiopathic neutropenia were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, and response to treatment were recorded and compared with that in dogs with neutropenia attributable to known causes and to dogs without neutropenia (controls).
Results—Compared with dogs with neutropenia attributable to known causes, dogs with idiopathic neutropenia had lower neutrophil counts and were younger. When compared with control dogs, age < 4 years was identified as a risk factor for developing idiopathic neutropenia. In all dogs with idiopathic neutropenia, remission of neutropenia occurred within 18 days after administration of prednisone (2 to 4 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, daily) and no serious complications or infections developed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An immunemediated pathogenesis should be considered for dogs with idiopathic neutropenia in which the cause is not known. Severe neutropenia and young age were significantly associated with idiopathic neutropenia in dogs. Prognosis appeared to be excellent with prednisone treatment.
Objective—To compare incidence of and breed-related
risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV)
among 11 dog breeds (Akita, Bloodhound, Collie,
Great Dane, Irish Setter, Irish Wolfhound,
Newfoundland, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Standard
Poodle, and Weimaraner).
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history
of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the
dog's length and height and depth and width of the
thorax and abdomen were measured. Information
concerning the dogs' medical history, genetic background,
personality, and diet was obtained from owners,
and owners were contacted by mail and telephone
at approximately 1-year intervals to determine
whether dogs had developed GDV or died. Incidence
of GDV based on the number of dog-years at risk was
calculated for each breed, and breed-related risk factors
Results and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of GDV
for the 7 large (23 to 45 kg [50 to 99 lb]) and 4 giant (>
45 kg [> 99 lb]) breeds was 23 and 26 cases/1,000 dogyears
at risk, respectively. Of the 105 dogs that developed
GDV, 30 (28.6%) died. Incidence of GDV
increased with increasing age. Cumulative incidence of
GDV was 5.7% for all breeds. The only breed-specific
characteristic significantly associated with a decreased
incidence of GDV was an owner-perceived personality
trait of happiness. ( J Am Med Vet Assoc 2000;216:
Objective—To test the hypothesis that increased severity of periodontal disease in dogs is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-related events, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, as well as markers of inflammation.
Design—Historical cohort observational study.
Sample Population—59,296 dogs with a history of periodontal disease (periodontal cohort), of which 23,043 had stage 1 disease, 20,732 had stage 2 disease, and 15,521 had stage 3 disease; and an age-matched comparison group of 59,296 dogs with no history of periodontal disease (nonperiodontal cohort).
Procedures—Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular-related diagnoses and examination findings in dogs as a function of the stage of periodontal disease (1, 2, or 3 or no periodontal disease) over time while controlling for the effect of potential confounding factors.
Results—Significant associations were detected between the severity of periodontal disease and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular-related conditions, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, but not between the severity of periodontal disease and the risk of a variety of other common noncardiovascular-related conditions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings of this observational study, similar to epidemiologic studies in humans, suggested that periodontal disease was associated with cardiovascular-related conditions, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Chronic inflammation is probably an important mechanism connecting bacterial flora in the oral cavity of dogs with systemic disease. Canine health may be improved if veterinarians and pet owners place a higher priority on routine dental care.
Objective—To identify non-dietary risk factors for
gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in large breed and
giant breed dogs.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—1,637 dogs ≥ 6 months old of the following
breeds: Akita, Bloodhound, Collie, Great Dane, Irish
Setter, Irish Wolfhound, Newfoundland, Rottweiler,
Saint Bernard, Standard Poodle, and Weimaraner.
Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history
of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the
dog's length and height and the depth and width of
its thorax and abdomen were measured. Information
concerning the dog's medical history, genetic background,
personality, and diet was obtained from the
owners, and owners were contacted by mail and
telephone at approximately 1-year intervals to determine
whether dogs had developed GDV or died.
Incidence of GDV, calculated on the basis of dogyears
at risk for dogs that were or were not exposed
to potential risk factors, was used to calculate the relative
risk of GDV.
Results and Clinical Relevance—Cumulative incidence
of GDV during the study was 6% for large
breed and giant breed dogs. Factors significantly
associated with an increased risk of GDV were
increasing age, having a first-degree relative with a
history of GDV, having a faster speed of eating, and
having a raised feeding bowl. Approximately 20 and
52% of cases of GDV among the large breed and
giant breed dogs, respectively, were attributed to
having a raised feed bowl. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether administration of
glucocorticoids provides additional benefits to environmental
management of horses with recurrent airway
Animals—28 horses with RAO.
Procedure—Horses were classified as having mild,
moderate, or severe RAO. Within each category,
horses were randomly assigned to receive inhaled
fluticasone propionate, inhaled control substance,
or oral administration of prednisone. During the 4-
week study, horses were maintained outdoors and
fed a pelleted feed. Clinical scores, pulmonary function,
results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid (BALF), and adrenal gland
function were determined before and 2 and 4
weeks after initiation of treatment.
Results—Clinical score and pulmonary function of all
RAO-affected horses improved during the treatment
period. After 4 weeks, clinical scores and pulmonary
function of horses treated with a glucocorticoid were
not different from those for the control treatment. In
horses with severe RAO, treatment with fluticasone
for 2 weeks resulted in significantly greater improvement
in pulmonary function, compared with pulmonary
function after treatment with prednisone or
the control substance. Treatment with a glucocorticoid
for 4 weeks and a low-dust environment did not have
any effect on cellular content of BALF. Treatment with
prednisone for 2 weeks resulted in a significant
decrease in serum cortisol concentration, compared
with concentrations after administration of fluticasone
or the control substance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental
management is the most important factor in
the treatment of horses with RAO. Early treatment
with inhaled fluticasone can help accelerate recovery
of horses with severe RAO. (Am J Vet Res
Objectives—To determine whether aqueous humor
flare, measured by use of laser flaremetry, was proportional
to aqueous humor protein concentration and
to use laser flaremetry to evaluate disruption of the
blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) in cats.
Animals—30 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Laser flaremetry values for all eyes were
compared with aqueous humor protein concentrations
determined by use of a Coomassie blue microprotein
assay. Laser flaremetry was then performed
on both eyes before (0 hours) and 4, 8, and 26 hours
after initiation of topical application of 2% pilocarpine
(q 8 h) to 1 eye of 9 cats or paracentesis of the anterior
chamber of 1 eye of 8 cats. Intraocular pressure
and pupil size were also determined. Aqueous humor
protein concentration was extrapolated from flare values
by use of linear regression.
Results—There was a linear relationship between
flare values and aqueous humor protein concentrations.
Topical application of 2% pilocarpine and paracentesis
of the anterior chamber caused a breakdown
of the BAB that was detected by use of laser flaremetry.
The highest mean flare readings after application
of pilocarpine or paracentesis were 24.4 and 132.8
pc/ms, respectively, which corresponded to aqueous
humor protein concentrations of 85.5 and 434.9
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Paracentesis of
the anterior chamber resulted in a more severe breakdown
of the BAB in cats than topical application of 2%
pilocarpine. Laser flaremetry may be a useful clinical
method to detect increases in aqueous flare and,
hence, disruptions of the BAB in cats. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate the use of piroxicam for the
treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—17 dogs with measurable oral squamous
Procedure—Dogs were treated with piroxicam at a
dosage of 0.3 mg/kg (0.14 mg/lb) of body weight, PO,
every 24 hours until progressive disease or unacceptable
signs of toxicosis developed or the dog died.
Results—One dog had a complete remission (maxillary
tumor), and 2 dogs had partial remissions (lingual
tumor and tonsillar tumor). An additional 5 dogs had
stable disease, including 1 with a maxillary tumor, 2
with mandibular tumors, and 2 with tonsillar tumors.
Variables associated with tumor response were not
identified. Median and mean times to failure for the 3
dogs that had a remission were 180 and 223 days,
respectively. Median and mean times to failure for the
5 dogs with stable disease were 102 and 223 days,
respectively. Time to failure was positively associated
with tumor response and negatively associated with
tumor size. One dog had mild adverse gastrointestinal
tract effects that resolved with the addition of misoprostol
to the treatment regimen.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that piroxicam may be useful in the treatment of
dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma; response
rate was similar to that reported for other cytotoxic
treatments. Larger-scale studies are warranted to
determine what role piroxicam may have, alone or in
combination with other treatments, for the treatment
of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;218:1783–1786)
Objective—To determine incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—3,587 ferrets that received a rabies or distemper vaccine between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003.
Procedures—Electronic medical records were searched for possible vaccine-associated adverse events. Adverse events were classified by attending veterinarians as nonspecific vaccine reactions, allergic reactions, or anaphylaxis. Patient information that was collected included age, weight, sex, cumulative number of distemper and rabies vaccinations received, clinical signs, and treatment. The association between potential risk factors and occurrence of an adverse event was estimated with logistic regression.
Results—30 adverse events were recorded. The adverse event incidence rates for administration of rabies vaccine alone, distemper vaccine alone, and rabies and distemper vaccines together were 0.51%, 1.00%, and 0.85%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different. All adverse events occurred immediately following vaccine administration and most commonly consisted of vomiting and diarrhea (52%) or vomiting alone (31%). Age, sex, and body weight were not significantly associated with occurrence
of adverse events, but adverse event incidence rate increased as the cumulative number of distemper or rabies vaccinations received increased. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the cumulative number of distemper vaccinations received was significantly associated with the occurrence of an adverse event.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in ferrets, the risk of vaccine-associated adverse events was primarily associated with an increase in the number of distemper vaccinations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:909–912)