Objective—To evaluate the clinicopathologic features, response to treatment, and risk factors associated with idiopathic neutropenia in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with idiopathic neutropenia were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, and response to treatment were recorded and compared with that in dogs with neutropenia attributable to known causes and to dogs without neutropenia (controls).
Results—Compared with dogs with neutropenia attributable to known causes, dogs with idiopathic neutropenia had lower neutrophil counts and were younger. When compared with control dogs, age < 4 years was identified as a risk factor for developing idiopathic neutropenia. In all dogs with idiopathic neutropenia, remission of neutropenia occurred within 18 days after administration of prednisone (2 to 4 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, daily) and no serious complications or infections developed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An immunemediated pathogenesis should be considered for dogs with idiopathic neutropenia in which the cause is not known. Severe neutropenia and young age were significantly associated with idiopathic neutropenia in dogs. Prognosis appeared to be excellent with prednisone treatment.
Objectives—To determine whether aqueous humor
flare, measured by use of laser flaremetry, was proportional
to aqueous humor protein concentration and
to use laser flaremetry to evaluate disruption of the
blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) in cats.
Animals—30 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Laser flaremetry values for all eyes were
compared with aqueous humor protein concentrations
determined by use of a Coomassie blue microprotein
assay. Laser flaremetry was then performed
on both eyes before (0 hours) and 4, 8, and 26 hours
after initiation of topical application of 2% pilocarpine
(q 8 h) to 1 eye of 9 cats or paracentesis of the anterior
chamber of 1 eye of 8 cats. Intraocular pressure
and pupil size were also determined. Aqueous humor
protein concentration was extrapolated from flare values
by use of linear regression.
Results—There was a linear relationship between
flare values and aqueous humor protein concentrations.
Topical application of 2% pilocarpine and paracentesis
of the anterior chamber caused a breakdown
of the BAB that was detected by use of laser flaremetry.
The highest mean flare readings after application
of pilocarpine or paracentesis were 24.4 and 132.8
pc/ms, respectively, which corresponded to aqueous
humor protein concentrations of 85.5 and 434.9
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Paracentesis of
the anterior chamber resulted in a more severe breakdown
of the BAB in cats than topical application of 2%
pilocarpine. Laser flaremetry may be a useful clinical
method to detect increases in aqueous flare and,
hence, disruptions of the BAB in cats. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine whether heavy (≥ 680 kg [≥ 1,500 lb]) draft horses undergoing surgical treatment for acute signs of abdominal pain were at a greater risk for anesthetic and postoperative complications and lower postoperative survival rates than light (< 680 kg) draft horses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—72 draft horses.
Procedures—Medical records of draft horses that underwent exploratory celiotomy for signs of acute abdominal pain from October 1983 to December 2002 were reviewed. Medical records of draft horses in which a celiotomy was performed for correction of reproductive abnormalities were not included in the study.
Results—When compared with light draft horses, heavy draft horses had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and lower survival rates. Seventy-six percent of horses that recovered from anesthesia had postoperative complications. Postoperative complications associated with low survival rates included myopathy and neuropathy, ileus, diarrhea, and endotoxemia. All horses with postoperative myopathy and neuropathy died or were euthanized. The short-term survival rate for horses that recovered from anesthesia was 60%. Horses undergoing small intestinal surgery had a worse prognosis for short-term survival than those undergoing large intestinal surgery. The survival rate for horses for which long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information was available was 50%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Draft horses weighing > 680 kg that underwent surgery because of acute signs of abdominal pain had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and higher mortality rates than draft horses weighing < 680 kg.