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  • Author or Editor: Ninna M. Koho x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize the expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1 and 4 and the ancillary protein CD147 in the intestinal tract of healthy equids and determine the cellular location of CD147 in the intestinal epithelium.

ANIMALS 12 healthy horses and ponies slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal tract disease.

PROCEDURES The entire gastrointestinal tract was removed from each equid within 45 minutes after slaughter or euthanasia. Tissue samples were obtained from the antimesenteric side of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, middle part of the cecum, sternal flexure of the ventral colon, pelvic flexure, sternal flexure of the dorsal colon, and descending colon (small colon). Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, and the ancillary protein CD147 were examined in tissue samples from each of the 8 intestinal locations by means of quantitative PCR assay, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analyses.

RESULTS Expression of MCT1 was most abundant in the cecum and colonic sites, whereas expression of MCT4 was predominantly in the proximal section of the intestine (small intestinal sites and cecum). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MCT1 and CD147 were present in the membranes of enterocytes (in crypts and villi).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The anatomic distribution of MCT1 and MCT4 in the equine intestinal tract determined in this study together with the previous knowledge of the sites of substrate absorption indicated that MCT1 might predominantly contribute to the uptake of short-chain fatty acids in the large intestine and MCT4 might predominantly contribute to the uptake of lactate in the small intestine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To examine whether expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) can be detected in equine lungs and whether it correlates with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses with chronic inflammation of the lungs (ie, lower airway inflammation [LAI]).

ANIMALS 29 horses with signs of chronic respiratory tract disease, which were classified as the LAI (n = 17) and LAI with respiratory distress (RDLAI [12]) groups, and 15 control horses.

PROCEDURES BALF, tracheal aspirate, and blood samples were obtained, and EMMPRIN expression was determined from BALF cells and RBCs by use of western blotting. Activities of MMP-2 and -9 were determined with zymography.

RESULTS Expression of EMMPRIN protein was identified in BALF cells of all horses. Expression of EMMPRIN protein was highest for the RDLAI group and was correlated with MMP-2 and -9 protein expression, MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity, and airway neutrophilia.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that EMMPRIN was involved in the pathophysiologic processes of asthma in horses. However, additional studies of horses and other species are warranted to elucidate the regulation of EMMPRIN expression in asthmatic lungs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To detect monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in canine RBC membranes and to determine the distribution of lactate between plasma and RBCs.

Sample population—Blood samples obtained from 6 purpose-bred Beagles.

Procedures—Monocarboxylate transporter isoforms 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 and CD147 were evaluated in canine RBCs by use of western blot analysis. Lactate influx into RBCs was measured as incorporation of radioactive lactate.

Results—2 MCT isoforms, MCT1 and MCT7, were detected in canine RBC membranes on western blot analysis, whereas anti-MCT2, anti-MCT4, anti-MCT6, and anti-MCT8 antibodies resulted in no signal. No correlation was found between the amount of MCT1 or MCT7 and lactate transport activity, but the ancillary protein CD147 that is needed for the activity of MCT1 had a positive linear correlation with the rate of lactate influx. The apparent Michaelis constant for the lactate influx in canine RBCs was 8.8 ± 0.9mM. Results of in vitro incubation studies revealed that at lactate concentrations of 5 to 15mM, equilibrium of lactate was rapidly obtained between plasma and RBCs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results indicated that at least half of the lactate transport in canine RBCs occurs via MCT1, whereas MCT7 may be responsible for the rest, although an additional transporter was not ruled out. For practical purposes, the rapid equilibration of lactate between plasma and RBCs indicated that blood lactate concentrations may be estimated from plasma lactate concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research