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To describe the frequency and types of injuries experienced by dogs competing and training in agility and identify breed and geographic differences in frequency and types of injuries.
Surveys completed by owners of 4,701 dogs.
The study involved an internet-based survey. Participants were asked whether their dog had ever had an injury that kept it from participating in agility for > 1 week and, if so, to identify the location and type of injury.
Owners of 1,958 (41.7%) dogs reported that their dogs had experienced an injury. The most common injury locations were the shoulder region (n = 589 [30.1% of all dogs with an injury]) and iliopsoas muscle (380 [19.4%]). The percentage of Border Collies sustaining an injury (549/1,052 [51.9%]) was significantly higher than percentages of other breeds. Percentage of dogs that sustained an injury varied by country, with the highest percentage reported in Australia (93/174 [53.4%]) and lowest percentage reported in the US (1,149/2,889 [39.8%]).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that, among dogs competing and training in agility, injuries to the shoulder region were substantially more common than injuries in other anatomic locations, with iliopsoas muscle injuries second most common. The frequency and types of injuries varied among breeds and geographic regions. Findings may help guide clinical evaluations when agility dogs are seen in clinical practice for performance issues or lameness. Further studies regarding regional differences in injury rates are required.
To determine whether use of a protective cover would affect temporospatial gait or ground reaction force (GRF) measurements obtained from dogs walking on a validated pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW).
5 healthy dogs.
In a crossover study design, all dogs were walked across a calibrated PSW with and without a protective cover in place in random order. Temporospatial gait data and GRFs obtained with and without the cover in place were compared.
No significant differences were identified in temporospatial gait measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place. The bias was low for all variables, and the 95% limits of agreement included 0. In contrast, significant differences were found between measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place for most GRFs, with measurements obtained with the cover in place significantly lower than those obtained without a cover.
Results suggested that for dogs walking over a PSW, GRFs, but not temporospatial gait variables, would be significantly lower if a protective cover was placed over the walkway, compared with values obtained without a cover in place.
Case Description—4 dogs were evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections.
Clinical Findings—All dogs had recurrent urinary tract infections and similar clinical signs; 3 dogs had urinary incontinence. Digital vaginal examination revealed vestibulovaginal stenosis in all dogs, which was confirmed by results of contrast vaginourethrography. From image measurements, the vestibulovaginal ratio (ratio of the height of the vestibulovaginal junction to the maximum height of the vagina on a lateral vaginourethrogram) was calculated for each dog. Three dogs had severe stenosis (vestibulovaginal ratio, < 0.20; severe stenosis is defined as a vestibulovaginal ratio < 0.20), whereas the fourth dog had moderate stenosis (vestibulovaginal ratio, 0.24; ratio range for moderate stenosis is 0.20 to 0.25).
Treatment and Outcome—All dogs were anesthetized for surgical correction of the vestibulovaginal stenosis. Vaginal resection and anastomosis of the stenosis was performed in all 4 dogs, with 1 dog also undergoing episioplasty. Complete resolution of clinical signs was apparent in 3 dogs; 1 dog had postoperative complications including pollakiuria and stranguria, which resulted in rectal and vaginal prolapse. This dog underwent ovariohysterectomy, after which clinical signs resolved. All dogs had resolution of urinary tract infections at the time of follow-up (6 to 8 months after surgery).
Clinical Relevance—Resection and anastomosis may resolve recurrent urinary tract infections in dogs with severe or moderate vestibulovaginal stenosis. Episiotomy was not necessary for success of surgical treatment, and overall, that procedure increased morbidity, the severity of intraoperative hemorrhage, and duration of surgery.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 walkway cover types on temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements of dogs during gait analysis with a pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW).
ANIMALS 35 client- and staff-owned dogs (25 nonlame and 10 lame).
PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, all dogs were evaluated at a comfortable walk on a PSW to which 3 cover types (a 0.32-cm-thick corrugated vinyl mat or a 0.32- or 0.64-cm-thick polyvinyl chloride yoga mat) were applied in random order. Temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements were obtained and compared among cover types within the nonlame and lame dog groups.
RESULTS Several variables, including maximum peak pressure, maximum force (absolute and normalized as a percentage of body weight), and vertical impulse (absolute and normalized) differed significantly in most comparisons among cover types for both nonlame and lame dogs. There was no significant difference in maximum force values between the 0.32-cm-thick corrugated vinyl and 0.64-cm-thick polyvinyl chloride cover types for both nonlame and lame dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors’ knowledge, the cover type used during data collection with a PSW is rarely provided in published reports on this topic. The findings in this study suggested that to ensure that PSW data for dogs are collected in a standardized manner, the same cover type should be used during follow-up visits to evaluate clinical outcomes, for the duration of research studies, and at all locations for multi-institutional studies. The cover type should be specified in future PSW studies to allow direct comparisons of findings between studies.
To compare biomechanical strength of 4.75- and 5.5-mm suture anchors when pulled at 45° or 90° angles using 1 versus 2 strands of suture.
48 synthetic bone block samples.
Anchors were inserted into synthetic bone blocks and tested for pullout in 4 configurations (1 suture strand vs 2 strands and 45° vs 90° insertion angle) for a total of 8 groups with 6 samples each. A 3-way ANOVA was used to compare effect of anchor size, strand amount, and angle of pull.
All constructs failed via anchor pullout. Anchor configurations with 2 strands of suture and 4.75-mm anchor (mean, 286 ± 24 N) or 5.5-mm anchor (mean, 300 ± 15 N) had greater pullout strength than configurations with only 1 strand of suture and 4.75-mm anchor (mean, 202 ± 12 N) or 5.5-mm anchor (mean, 286 ± 13.6 N). The 5.5-mm anchors had a higher maximum load to failure under axial pull at 45° (mean, 300 ± 15 N) and 90° (mean, 295 ± 24 N), compared with 4.75-mm anchors at 45° (mean, 202 ± 12 N) and 90° (mean, 208 ± 15 N). There was a higher maximum load to failure for the double-stranded constructs, regardless of anchor size, at both angles of insertion. Anchors inserted at 45° had a higher maximum load to failure than those inserted at 90°. Constructs with 2 strands of suture had a greater pullout strength regardless of the direction of pull.
The strength of the anchor construct is likely increased with the use of double-loaded anchors inserted at 45°. Clinicians should consider using 2 strands in clinical cases.
OBJECTIVE To compare suture placement time, tension at skin separation and suture line failure, and mode of failure among 4 suture patterns.
DESIGN Randomized trial.
SAMPLE 60 skin specimens from the pelvic limbs of 30 purpose-bred Beagles.
PROCEDURES Skin specimens were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia and tested within 6 hours after harvest. An 8-cm incision was made in each specimen and sutured with 1 of 4 randomly assigned suture patterns (simple interrupted, cruciate, intradermal, or subdermal). Suture placement time and percentage of skin apposition were evaluated. Specimens were mounted in a calibrated material testing machine and distracted until suture line failure. Tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure and mode of failure were compared among the 4 patterns.
RESULTS Mean suture placement time for the cruciate pattern was significantly less than that for other patterns. Percentage of skin apposition did not differ among the 4 patterns. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure for the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns were significantly higher than those for the intradermal and subdermal patterns. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure did not differ significantly between the intradermal and subdermal patterns or the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns. The primary mode of failure for the simple interrupted pattern was suture breakage, whereas that for the cruciate, intradermal, and subdermal patterns was tissue failure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested external skin sutures may be preferred for closure of incisions under tension to reduce risk of dehiscence.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate accuracy and reliability of 3 novel goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles and compare the results with those obtained with a universal goniometer (UG).
SAMPLE 8 pelvic limbs from 4 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Each limb was secured to a wooden platform at 3 arbitrarily selected fixed stifle joint angles. Goniometry was performed with 2 smartphone-based applications (novel goniometers A and B), a digital goniometer (novel goniometer C), and a UG; 3 evaluators performed measurements in triplicate for each angle with each device. Results were compared with stifle joint angle measurements on radiographs (used as a gold standard). Accuracy was determined by calculation of bias and total error, coefficients of variation were calculated to estimate reliability, and strength of linear association between radiographic and goniometer measurements was assessed by calculation of correlation coefficients.
RESULTS Mean coefficient of variation was lowest for the UG (4.88%), followed by novel goniometers B (7.37%), A (7.57%), and C (12.71%). Correlation with radiographic measurements was highest for the UG (r = 0.97), followed by novel goniometers B (0.93), A (0.90), and C (0.78). Constant bias was present for all devices except novel goniometer B. The UG and novel goniometer A had positive constant bias; novel goniometer C had negative constant bias. Total error at 50° and 100° angles was > 5% for all devices.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE None of the devices accurately represented radiographically measured stifle joint angles. Additional veterinary studies are indicated prior to the use of novel goniometers in dogs.
To describe long-term outcomes of cats managed medically for cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) via a validated owner-based questionnaire.
18 client-owned cats.
Retrospective review of medical records at 2 tertiary referral hospitals was conducted for records of cats diagnosed with CCLD for which medical management was pursued. History, physical examination findings, and medical management strategies were recorded. Owner follow-up was obtained via phone call or an email correspondence interview using a 2-part questionnaire. Part 1 consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions evaluating short-term outcomes following initiation of medical management. Part 2 assessed long-term outcomes via the validated Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index—short form metrology instrument.
Mean follow-up time was 66.5 ± 46.7 months (range, 7 to 154 months). Medical management included oral analgesics, activity restriction, and joint supplements. Of the 18 cats, 13 (72%) were always able to bear weight or became weight bearing within a week following initiation of medical management, and 15 (83%) were reportedly clinically normal within 3 months of initiating medical management, with complete resolution of lameness occurring in less than 2 months in 12 of those cats. Long term, 17 of the 18 (94%) owners reported they felt that their cat had a good to excellent outcome with medical management. The mean Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index—short form score of all cats was 0.29 ± 0.53 (range, 0 to 2.13).
Based on owner follow-up, conservative, nonsurgical management of CCLD can be an effective and appropriate management strategy for some cats; however, some may be best treated with surgical stabilization.