Objective—To determine the prevalence of lameness
as a function of season (summer vs winter), housing
type (free stalls vs tie stalls), and stall surface (sand
vs any other surface) among lactating dairy cows in
Animals—3,621 lactating dairy cows in 30 herds.
Procedure—Herds were visited once during the summer
and once during the winter, and a locomotion
score ranging from 1 (no gait abnormality) to 4 (severe
lameness) was assigned to all lactating cows. Cows
with a score of 3 or 4 were considered to be clinically
Results—Mean ± SD herd lameness prevalence was
21.1 ± 10.5% during the summer and 23.9 ± 10.7%
during the winter; these values were significantly different.
During the winter, mean prevalence of lameness
in free-stall herds with non-sand stall surfaces
(33.7%) was significantly higher than prevalences in
free-stall herds with sand stall surfaces (21.2%), tiestall
herds with non-sand stall surfaces (21.7%), and
tie-stall herds with sand stall surfaces (12.1%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the prevalence of lameness among dairy
cattle in Wisconsin is higher than previously thought
and that lameness prevalence is associated with season,
housing type, and stall surface. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To determine whether treatment of horses with firocoxib affects recovery of ischemic-injured jejunum, while providing effective analgesia.
Procedures—Horses (n = 6 horses/group) received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/50 kg, IV), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or firocoxib (0.09 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) before 2 hours of jejunal ischemia. Horses were monitored via pain scores and received butorphanol for analgesia. After 18 hours, ischemic-injured and control mucosa were placed in Ussing chambers for measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeability to lipopolysaccharide. Histomorphometry was used to determine denuded villus surface area. Western blots for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 were performed. Plasma thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGEM) concentrations were determined.
Results—Pain scores did not significantly increase after surgery in horses receiving flunixin meglumine or firocoxib. Transepithelial resistance of ischemic-injured jejunum from horses treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than in saline- or firocoxib-treated horses. Lipopolysaccharide permeability across ischemic-injured mucosa was significantly increased in horses treated with flunixin meglumine. Treatment did not affect epithelial restitution. Cyclooxygenase-1 was constitutively expressed and COX-2 was upregulated after 2 hours of ischemia. Thromboxane B2 concentration decreased with flunixin meglumine treatment but increased with firocoxib or saline treatment. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib prevented an increase in PGEM concentration after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flunixin meglumine retarded mucosal recovery in ischemic-injured jejunum, whereas firocoxib did not. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib were effective visceral analgesics. Firocoxib may be advantageous in horses recovering from ischemic intestinal injury.
Objective—To investigate effects of lidocaine hydrochloride administered IV on mucosal inflammation in ischemia-injured jejunum of horses treated with flunixin meglumine.
Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 1 mL/50 kg, IV [1 dose]), flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), lidocaine (bolus [1.3 mg/kg] and constant rate infusion [0.05 mg/kg/min], IV, during and after recovery from surgery), or both flunixin and lidocaine (n = 6/group). During surgery, blood flow was occluded for 2 hours in 2 sections of jejunum in each horse. Uninjured and ischemia-injured jejunal specimens were collected after the ischemic period and after euthanasia 18 hours later for histologic assessment and determination of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression (via western blot procedures). Plasma samples collected prior to (baseline) and 8 hours after the ischemic period were analyzed for prostanoid concentrations.
Results—Immediately after the ischemic period, COX-2 expression in horses treated with lidocaine alone was significantly less than expression in horses treated with SS or flunixin alone. Eighteen hours after the ischemic period, mucosal neutrophil counts in horses treated with flunixin alone were significantly higher than counts in other treatment groups. Compared with baseline plasma concentrations, postischemia prostaglandin E2 metabolite and thromboxane B2 concentrations increased in horses treated with SS and in horses treated with SS or lidocaine alone, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with ischemia-injured jejunum, lidocaine administered IV reduced plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite concentration and mucosal COX-2 expression. Coadministration of lidocaine with flunixin ameliorated the flunixin-induced increase in mucosal neutrophil counts.