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  • Author or Editor: Niel A. Karrow x
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Objective—To test the hypothesis that simulated digests of Biota orientalis (BO) and a dietary nutraceutical (DN; composed of mussel, shark cartilage, abalone, and BO seed lipid extract) inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production in interleukin (IL)-1–stimulated cartilage explants.

Sample Population—Cartilage tissue from 12 pigs.

Procedures—Articular cartilage explants were conditioned with a simulated digest of BO (BOsim) or DN (DNsim) at concentrations of 0, 0.06, or 0.18 mg/mL or indomethacin (INDOsim; 0 or 0.02 mg/mL) for 72 hours. Control explants received digest vehicle only. Explants were or were not stimulated with recombinant human-IL-1β (10 or 0 ng/mL) during the final 48 hours of culture. Concentrations of PGE2, GAG, and NO in media samples (mPGE2,mGAG, and mNO concentrations, respectively) were analyzed, and explant tissue was stained fluorochromatically to determine chondrocyte viability. Treatment effects during the final 48-hour culture period were analyzed.

Results—IL-1 increased mPGE2, mGAG, and mNO concentrations in control explants without adversely affecting cell viability. Treatment with INDOsim blocked PGE2 production and increased mNO concentration in IL-1–stimulated and unstimulated explants and increased mGAG concentration in unstimulated explants. Treatment with DNsim (0.06 and 0.18 mg/mL) reduced mPGE2 concentration in IL-1–stimulated and unstimulated explants, reduced mNO concentration in IL-1–stimulated explants, and increased mNO concentration in unstimulated explants. Treatment with 0.18 mg of DNsim/mL increased cell viability in the presence of IL-1. In IL-1–stimulated explants, BOsim (0.06 and 0.18 mg/mL) reduced mPGE2 concentration, but 0.18 mg of BOsim/mL increased cell viability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Effects of IL-1 on cartilage explants in vitro were modulated by DNsim and BOsim.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the effects of feeding cereal-based diets that are naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to dogs and assess the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) in prevention of Fusarium mycotoxicosis.

Animals—12 mature female Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs received each of 3 cereal-based diets for 14 days. One diet was uncontaminated (control diet), and the other 2 contained contaminated grains; one of the contaminated diets also contained 0.2% GMA. Contaminants included deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fusaric acid. Food intake and nutrient digestibility, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and clinicopathologic variables of the dogs were assessed at intervals during the feeding periods.

Results—Food intake and body weight of dogs fed the contaminated diet without GMA were significantly decreased, compared with effects of the control diet. Reductions in blood pressure; heart rate; serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, and fibrinogen; and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and amylase as well as increases in blood monocyte count and mean corpuscular volume were detected. Consumption of GMA did not ameliorate the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins. For the GMA-contaminated diet, digestibility of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid was significantly higher than that associated with the control diet, possibly because of physiologic adaptation of the recipient dogs to reduced food intake.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can adversely affect dogs' feeding behaviors and metabolism. As a food additive, GMA was not effective in prevention of Fusarium mycotoxicosis in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research