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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate a carrageenan-induced inflammatory model in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using weight-bearing load, rotational perch locomotion, thermal threshold withdrawal, and footpad dimensions.

ANIMALS

16 adult cockatiels (8 males and 8 females).

PROCEDURES

Cockatiels were randomly assigned into 2 groups as either treatment (carrageenan injection; n = 8) or control (handling only; 8). Treatment of cockatiels involved unilateral subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Control birds were handled in a similar manner without an injection. Following baseline measurements and treatment or control procedures, posttreatment measurements at multiple time points involving weight-bearing perch load (for up to 336 hours), locomotive abilities when placed on a rotating perch (for up to 96 hours), thermal withdrawal threshold (for the 24- to 30-hour period), and both vertical and horizontal left footpad size and degree of swelling (for up to 84 days) were obtained.

RESULTS

Treatment cockatiels had a significant decrease in left foot weight-bearing load and increase in left footpad dimensions and swelling grade over time compared to control cockatiels. Rotational perch locomotion and thermal withdrawal threshold, conversely, did not differ significantly between groups. Cockatiels injected with carrageenan returned to normal weight-bearing within 2 weeks; however, left footpad dimensions did not return to baseline.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carrageenan footpad injection prompts a measurable and grossly visible inflammatory response in the cockatiel. Additionally, it induces alterations in weight-bearing distribution in injected birds. This model provides a method to evaluate inflammation and lameness in small psittacine species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate behaviors associated with inflammatory pain induced by carrageenan injection in the cockatiel and determine interobserver agreement.

ANIMALS

16 adult cockatiels.

METHODS

Cockatiels were randomly assigned as either treatment (carrageenan injection) or control (sham injection) group. The treatment group received a subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of a 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Following treatment or control procedures, all cockatiels were video recorded individually for 9.5 hours. Ten minutes of video at each of 11 time points postinjection and/or handling were evaluated by 3 different observers. Twenty-five behaviors within 6 categories (resting, locomotion, maintenance, intake, interaction with environment, and limb and body posture) were assessed, in addition to crest position and mentation. Differences in individual behaviors tallies were assessed using serial Wilcoxon sum rank tests. Interobserver agreement was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient for a 2-way design for consistency among multiple observers.

RESULTS

Treatment cockatiels exhibited significantly increased focal preening (q = .023) and increased burst preening (q = .036), while control cockatiels spent significantly more time in an upright stance (q = .036). Although the remainder of behaviors observed were not statistically significant between groups, additional variables of interest seen more frequently in treatment cockatiels included non–weight-bearing stance, holding of the body low, and being nonvigilant. The level of agreement between observers was variable based on the specific behaviors; nevertheless, the dynamic behaviors were substantial to strong.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carrageenan-induced inflammation-associated behaviors may be valuable in developing a pain scale and evaluating mild inflammatory pain in small psittacine species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after subcutaneous administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

ANIMALS

Six orange-winged Amazon parrots, ages 28 to 45 years.

PROCEDURES

A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) as a 25% gel was created to produce a concentration of 8.3 mg/mL. The formulation was administered SC at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg to all birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline prior to injection (time 0) and then at 0.08, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 4, 8, and 12 hours after drug administration. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using noncompartmental analysis and a commercially available software program.

RESULTS

Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 4 hours for some birds (3/5) but were < 100 ng/mL for all birds by the 8-hour mark. Cmax and tmax were 346.9 ± 233.7 ng/mL and 1.3 ± 0.274 hours, respectively. Half-life was 1.56 ± 0.445 hours. No adverse effects were detected.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Butorphanol was absorbed from the But-P407 25% by the majority of the orange-winged Amazon parrots in this study (3/5), although to a lesser extent compared to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would be expected to provide antinociception for 4 to 8 hours, although pharmacodynamic studies in this species using this formulation have not demonstrated this.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the plasma concentrations and determine pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin and its primary active metabolites (para- and ortho-hydroxyatorvastatin) after administration of a single oral dose in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

ANIMALS

8 adult orange-winged Amazon parrots (4 male, 4 female) of varying ages.

METHODS

A compounded oral suspension of atorvastatin 10 mg/mL was administered via oral gavage at 20 mg/kg to each bird. Blood samples were collected at 10 different time points from 0 to 30 hours postadministration to evaluate plasma levels of atorvastatin, para-hydroxyatorvastatin, and ortho-hydroxyatorvastatin. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using noncompartmental analysis and commercially available software.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD atorvastatin half-life, tmax, and Cmax were 5.96 ± 11.50 hours, 1.60 ± 0.80 hours, and 82.60 ± 58.30 ng/mL, respectively. For para-hydroxyatorvastatin, the half-life, tmax, and Cmax were 6.46 ± 54.20 hours, 5.00 ± 2.51 hours, and 34.10 ± 16.00 ng/mL, respectively, and 5.58 ± 9.92 hours, 3.38 ± 2.10 hours, and 7.35 ± 3.96 ng/mL for ortho-hydroxyatorvastatin.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile shown support the therapeutic use of atorvastatin at the dose evaluated in this species based on human pharmacokinetic data. While 20 mg/kg PO q24 hours could be used as a starting dosage until further studies evaluating multiple dose administration and efficacy in this species become available, the high interindividual variability results warrant monitoring of the treatment response to make dosing adjustments if needed.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research