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Abstract

Case Description—3 kittens were examined because of a malformation affecting the hind limbs, resulting in an inability to bear weight or ambulate normally.

Clinical Findings—2 kittens were younger than 6 weeks of age, and 1 was 4 months of age at the time of initial examination. The congenital abnormality was characterized by severe tarsal hyperextension in which weight was borne on the cranial aspect of the tarsus, and the plantar surface of the metatarsus faced dorsally. In 2 kittens, the condition affected both hind limbs, and in the older kitten, the condition was unilateral. In the 2 kittens in which radiographs were obtained, no bone abnormalities were detected. Full-cylinder fiberglass casts were applied and changed weekly to accommodate growth. Owners administered physical therapy after final cast removal.

Treatment and Outcome—Conservative management involving external coaptation and physical therapy led to favorable results in all 3 cats.

Clinical Relevance—Although further studies are needed to determine the etiology of the disorder, affected kittens may be successfully treated with conservative management. Owners should be committed to the necessity for returning cats for serial cast changes, care for pressure sores, and administration of physical therapy after cast removal.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether epidural administration of opioids was associated with clinically important urinary retention in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic procedures.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—179 client-owned dogs undergoing elective surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedures—Medical records of 179 dogs that underwent surgical correction for cranial cruciate rupture between January 2009 and October 2012 were reviewed; 120 received epidural administration of opioids and 59 did not. Signalment, type of procedure, administration of epidural analgesia, time to first postanesthetic urination, and number of urinations during the first 24 hours were evaluated and compared between groups.

Results—Administration of preservative-free morphine into the epidural space was not significantly associated with time to first urination following anesthetic recovery or the total number of urinations within the first 24 hours of anesthetic recovery. Administration of a hydromorphone bolus IV following surgery was significantly associated with urinary retention, compared with administration of either morphine boluses or fentanyl constant rate infusions following surgery. No other variables were significantly associated with urinary retention.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of preservative-free morphine into the epidural space was not associated with clinically important urinary retention in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic procedures. Systemic administration of opioids may be associated with urinary retention.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify factors associated with dehiscence and mortality rates following gastrointestinal surgery in dogs.

ANIMALS

170 client-owned dogs that underwent gastrointestinal surgery from 2010 to 2016.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of all included dogs were reviewed to collect information on preoperative (breed, sex, age, body weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] physical status classification, emergency status, and plasma lactate concentration), intraoperative (indication for surgery, type of surgery, and whether bacterial peritonitis was identified), and postoperative (development of dehiscence and survival status at 2 weeks after surgery) factors. Preoperative and intraoperative factors were evaluated for associations among each other and with postoperative factors.

RESULTS

Univariate analyses revealed that preoperative plasma lactate concentration increased with increasing ASA status, and lactate concentrations were significantly higher for nonsurvivors (mean ± SD, 4.6 ± 3.7 mmol/L) than for survivors (2.4 ± 1.7 mmol/L). Multivariate analysis controlling for age, body weight, and plasma lactate concentration revealed that dogs with an ASA status ≥ 3 were more likely to develop dehiscence after gastrointestinal surgery than were dogs with a lower ASA status (OR, 17.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.17 to 144.06). Multivariate analysis also revealed that dogs with an ASA status ≥ 3 or high lactate concentration were less likely to survive than were other dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These findings regarding ASA status and preoperative plasma lactate concentration and their associations with outcome may help clinicians to determine and provide optimal perioperative care to dogs requiring gastrointestinal surgery as well as to inform owners about prognosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the difference in histologic artifacts and morphologic diagnosis among 3 laparoscopic cup biopsy forceps techniques and wedge hepatic samples.

ANIMALS

Cadavers of 20 client-owned dogs following euthanasia for unrelated reasons between January 3 and July 29, 2021.

PROCEDURES

Four biopsy techniques were performed from the margin of 3 liver lobes/dog. Laparoscopic techniques used 5-mm cup biopsy forceps to obtain biopsy samples by pulling the forceps forcefully caudally to free a sample (the PULL technique), rotating the forceps 360° in 1 direction until freed (the TWST technique), or pulling the forceps through a 5-mm cannula to remove the sample (the CAN technique); wedge biopsy samples served as the control (CON). Data collected included sample weight, histologic features, diagnosis, and artifact characterization. Gwet AC1 or intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to detect agreement among techniques.

RESULTS

Sample weights for CON and TWST were significantly larger (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively) than for PULL and CAN. There was excellent agreement among all techniques for most diagnostic features (Gwet AC1, 0.93 to 1). The TWST technique resulted in the best overall artifact profile for laparoscopic techniques, with 90% of samples (54/60) having crisp edges and 65% of samples (39/60) having no or mild tearing. The agreement was moderate to good (ICC, 0.73 for edges and 0.76 for tearing) among all cup biopsy forceps techniques.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The TWST technique resulted in the largest sample and had the fewest artifacts, supporting its continued use during laparoscopic procedures.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess attempts to proficiency of experienced veterinary surgeons for 2 surgical tasks when using a robotic simulator (Mimic dV-Trainer; Surgical Sciences) and determine factors associated with the successful performance of these tasks.

METHODS

Veterinary surgeons with rigid, minimally invasive surgery experience performed 2 tasks (“pick and place” and “knot the ring 1”) using the simulator until they attained proficiency. Individual performance variables were recorded. The number of attempts to proficiency was recorded. Performance variables were also assessed for effect on proficiency by the Kendall tau correlation and hierarchical multiple linear regression. The study period was from July 25, 2022, through December 14, 2022.

RESULTS

The 18 surgeons enrolled required a median of 8.5 attempts (95% CI, 7 to 12; range, 6 to 22) to reach proficiency for the basic task versus 27 attempts (95% CI, 21 to 38; range, 10 to 63) for the advanced task. Surgeons took a median of 6 minutes (range, 3 to 11 minutes) to complete training for the basic task and 12 minutes (range, 4 to 46 minutes) for the advanced task. The number of attempts to reach proficiency correlated strongly with economy of motion (tau = 0.72), instrument collisions (tau = 0.72), and time to completion (tau = 0.96).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although experienced surgeons required a high number of attempts to gain proficiency in robotic simulator tasks, they did achieve proficiency quickly, encouraging future investigations into their use for training. Specific motion metrics were identified which improved efficiency during training.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the differences in the healing of surgically created full-thickness wounds in dogs treated with a novel extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing as compared with a standard wound management protocol and to investigate the effect of antibiotics in these 2 populations.

ANIMALS

15 purpose-bred Beagles, 8 female spayed and 7 males neutered, operated on, and monitored between March 14, 2022, and April 18, 2022.

METHODS

Four 2 X 2-cm full-thickness skin wounds were created on the trunks of each dog. The right-sided wounds were treated with the novel ECM wound dressing, and the left-sided wounds served as the controls. Wound planimetry and qualitative wound scores were obtained at 12 time points. Wound biopsies for histopathologic assessment of wound repair and wound inflammation were obtained at 6 time points.

RESULTS

Wounds treated with ECM had higher percent epithelization at days 7, 9, 12, and 18 postoperatively (P < .001) and better histologic repair scores (P = .024) than wounds treated by the standard protocol. Subjective wound assessment scores of wounds treated with ECM did not differ from those treated by the standard protocol at any time point.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Wounds treated with the novel ECM dressing epithelialized more rapidly than wounds treated by a standard protocol.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with outcome in cats with extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBTO) that undergo biliary diversion surgery.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—22 cats.

Procedures—Medical records of cats with surgically confirmed EHBTO that underwent cholecystoenterostomy were reviewed.

Results—Clinical signs and physical examination findings included vomiting, anorexia, icterus, lethargy, weakness, and weight loss. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included high serum hepatic enzyme activities and serum bilirubin concentration. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 21 cats, and all 21 had findings consistent with EHBTO. Eleven of 15 cats in which blood pressure was monitored had intraoperative hypotension. Eighteen cats had anemia following surgery, and 14 cats had persistent hypotension. Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction was a result of neoplasia in 9 cats and chronic inflammatory disease in 13. Fourteen cats survived long enough to be discharged from the hospital, but only 6 survived > 6 months after surgery, all of which had chronic inflammatory disease. Median survival time for cats with neoplasia (14 days) was significantly shorter than that for cats with inflammatory disease (255 days). No other variable was associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats with EHBTO secondary to neoplasia have a poorer prognosis than cats with EHBTO secondary to chronic inflammatory disease. However, the overall prognosis for cats with EHBTO undergoing cholecystoenterostomy must be considered guarded to poor, and the incidence of perioperative complications is high.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the indications for, complications of, and surgical outcomes of dogs and cats that were treated with double limb amputations.

ANIMALS

14 dogs and 4 cats that underwent double limb amputations.

PROCEDURES

Data collected retrospectively included patient-specific (species, age, weight, breed, sex, existing comorbidities) and amputation-specific (indication for amputation, full or partial limb amputation, associated complications, need for revision surgeries) variables. Owner satisfaction scores were also collected.

RESULTS

The most common indication for double amputations was trauma (12/18) patients. Eleven patients had both amputations performed simultaneously. Nine patients had double partial limb amputations versus full limb amputations. Twelve patients underwent bilateral pelvic limb amputations, 4 underwent bilateral thoracic limb amputations, and 2 had 1 pelvic and 1 contralateral thoracic limb amputated. Five patients had reported complications over the course of the follow-up period, and complications for 3 patients were considered major. Revision surgery was reported for 2 animals. Owner satisfaction scores were reported as very satisfied/excellent (14/18), mildly satisfied (3/18), and strongly dissatisfied (1/18). Median time to follow-up was 450 days (range, 85 to 4,380 days).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Double limb amputation may be a viable alternative to advanced limb-sparing procedures or humane euthanasia based on the owner satisfaction data and the relatively low rate of major complications in this study. Future studies should clarify patient selection criteria and differences in function between surgical types.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of preoperative antimicrobial administration on culture results in dogs undergoing cystotomy as a treatment for urolithiasis.

Design—Prospective controlled study.

Animals—41 dogs undergoing cystotomy for cystic calculi removal.

Procedures—Urine samples were collected at time of anesthetic induction and during surgery prior to cystotomy, and a mucosal biopsy and culturette swab was collected during surgery from a control group, which received antimicrobials only after surgical culture sample collection, and from an experimental group, which received antimicrobials at the time of anesthetic induction.

Results—17 of 41 patients had positive culture results at anesthetic induction. Twenty of 41 patients had positive results of cultures for the surgical sample. No dogs that had positive results before antimicrobial administration had negative results after antimicrobial administration. There were no significant changes to urinalysis results regardless of group. Calcium monohydrate uroliths were the most common stone removed (24/41), followed by magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths (11/41).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There was no difference in culture results (positivity and bacterial type) when antimicrobials were given at anesthetic induction versus after surgical culture sample collection for dogs undergoing cystotomy for cystic calculi removal.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association