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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 16-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) was referred to the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of a 3-year seasonal history of lethargy and weight fluctuation.

Clinical Findings—Abnormalities detected via clinicopathologic analyses included mild leukocytosis, heterophilia, and lymphopenia consistent with a stress leukogram. Previous fecal examinations failed to diagnose enteric parasite infestation. Results of a fecal flotation test with Sheather sugar solution revealed spirurid eggs (Spiruroidea). Coelomic radiography revealed a widened cardiohepatic waist with increased soft tissue opacity at the level of the hepatic silhouette. The caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs bilaterally appeared compressed against the coleomic wall. The proventriculus was increased in diameter, with a proventriculus-to-keel ratio of 1.0. Coelomic ultrasonography and positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal radiography revealed severe thickening and irregularity of the proventricular wall. The animal was anesthetized for an endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intralesional nematodes were identified on histologic examination of biopsy specimens from the proventriculus.

Treatment and Outcome—Effective fenbendazole treatment (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, alternating between 5 days of treatment and 5 days of no treatment, which continued for 4 periods) was confirmed by repeated endoscopy and fecal examinations. The bird remained free of clinical signs 27 months after diagnosis and treatment.

Clinical Relevance—Antemortem diagnosis of proventricular nematodiasis has not been reported in psittacines. Spirurid nematode eggs are shed intermittently, which may lead to false-negative results on a single routine fecal examination. In this patient, radiography, endoscopy, and histologic evaluation facilitated antemortem diagnosis. This is the first report of successful treatment of this condition in psittacines.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine antibiotic levels in plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) after SC placement of compounded florfenicol (FF) calcium sulfate beads (CSBs) in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).


6 juvenile female rabbits (n = 5 treatment and 1 control).


An ultrafiltration probe and CSBs were placed SC in 6 rabbits (n = 5 for FF CSBs and 1 for control CSBs). Plasma (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days) and ISF (daily for 21 days) samples were collected, and FF was measured by HPLC for pharmacokinetic analysis. Hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology were assessed.


Means ± SD for the area under the curve, maximum concentration, time of maximum concentration, terminal half-life, and mean residence time to the last data point for plasma and ISF were 16.63 ± 8.16 and 17,902 ± 7,564 h·µg/mL, 0.79 ± 0.38 and 245 ± 223 µg/mL, 2.90 ± 0.3 and 59 ± 40 hours, 30.81 ± 16.9 and 27.3 ± 9.39 hours, 23.4 ± 10 and 73.7 ± 13 hours, respectively. Plasma FF was < 2 µg/mL at all time points. The ISF FF remained > 8 μg/mL for 109.98 to 231.58 hours. One rabbit death occurred during treatment, but the cause of death was undetermined. Local tissue inflammation was present, but no clinically significant systemic adverse effects were found on hematology, biochemistry, or histopathology in the remaining rabbits.


Florfenicol CSBs maintained antibiotic concentrations in ISF at levels likely to be effective against bacteria sensitive to > 8 µg/mL for 5 to 10 days while maintaining low (< 2 µg/mL) plasma levels. Florfenicol CSBs may be effective for local antibiotic treatment in rabbit abscesses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research