Case Description—4 dogs were treated with dexrazoxane for known or suspected doxorubicin extravasation. Records were retrospectively reviewed. Doses and number of doses of dexrazoxane were variable. Dexrazoxane was administered within 2 hours after known extravasation in 3 dogs and 48 hours after suspected extravasation in 1 dog. Additional medical treatments included tissue cooling in all dogs, topically administered dimethyl sulfoxide ointment in 3, and orally administered piroxicam in 1.
Clinical Findings—Mild erythema and edema at the extravasation site developed within 1 to 6 days after extravasation in the 3 dogs that received dexrazoxane within 2 hours after extravasation. Extensive tissue necrosis occurred in the dog treated 48 hours after suspected extravasation.
Treatment and Outcome—Only the dog with severe tissue necrosis required surgical intervention. Lesions in the other 3 dogs resolved with medical management alone. All dogs survived the event.
Clinical Relevance—To date, use of dexrazoxane in the management of doxorubicin extravasation has not been reported in dogs. Treatment was successful in 3 of 4 patients. The most effective dosage and timing of administration are unknown; however, there is evidence to suggest that administration within 6 hours after the event is warranted. Further studies are needed to confirm efficacy and to optimize use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of anthracycline extravasation injury in veterinary patients.
Objective—To compare clinical outcome of dogs
with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in the
inguinal or perineal region with outcome for dogs with
MCTs in other cutaneous locations.
Animals—37 dogs with MCTs in the inguinal or perineal
region and 87 dogs with MCTs in other cutaneous
Procedure—Information obtained from the medical
records included sex, breed, age, histologic grade of
all tumors, number and location of all tumors, tumor
size (ie, diameter of the tumor), completeness of surgical
excision, treatments administered in addition to
surgery, and outcome. In all dogs, the primary treatment
consisted of surgical excision.
Results—Disease-free interval and survival time for
dogs with MCTs in the inguinal or perineal region were
not significantly different from values for dogs with
MCTs in other cutaneous locations. Dogs with incompletely
excised tumors, dogs with grade III tumors, and
dogs that received systemic treatment were 2, 2.5,
and 4 times as likely, respectively, to have a relapse.
Factors significantly associated with a shorter survival
time were age > 8 years, metastatic disease at the
time of initial diagnosis, and tumor relapse.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the
present study suggest that dogs with MCTs in the
inguinal or perineal region do not have a worse prognosis
in regard to disease-free interval or survival time
than do dogs with MCTs in other cutaneous locations.
Treatment recommendations for dogs with cutaneous
MCTs should be based on confirmed predictors of biological
behavior, such as histologic grade and clinical
stage. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1368–1374)
Objective—To determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicosis (DLT) of ifosfamide in tumor-bearing cats.
Animals—38 cats with resected, recurrent, or metastatic sarcomas.
Procedure—The starting dosage of ifosfamide was 400 mg/m2 of body surface area, IV, and dosages were increased by 50 to 100 mg/m2 in cohorts of 3 cats. To protect against urotoxicosis, mesna was administered at a dosage equal to 20% of the calculated ifosfamide dosage. Diuresis with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution before and after administration of ifosfamide was used to minimize nephrotoxicosis. Samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were obtained after the MTD was reached.
Results—38 cats were entered into this phase I study and were administered a single dose of ifosfamide at various dosages. The MTD was 1,000 mg/m2, and neutropenia was the DLT. Seven of 8 episodes of neutropenia were on day 7 after treatment, and 1 cat developed severe neutropenia on day 5. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were generally mild and self-limiting, the most common of which was nausea during ifosfamide infusion. One cat had signs consistent with a drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction. There were no episodes of hemorrhagic cystitis or nephrotoxicosis. Correlations between pharmacokinetic variables and ifosfamide-associated toxicoses were not found. Preliminary evidence of antitumor activity was observed in 6 of 27 cats with measurable tumors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The dosage of ifosfamide recommended to treat tumor-bearing cats is 900 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. This dosage should be used in phase II clinical trials.
Objective—To describe morbidity, function, outcome, and owner satisfaction associated with limb amputation in domestic rabbits.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—34 client-owned domestic rabbits.
Procedures—Medical records of domestic rabbits undergoing limb amputation for any cause between 2000 and 2009 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival rate and median survival time, and variables were analyzed for relationship to risk of morbidity resulting in euthanasia and to outcome (survival vs nonsurvival [death or euthanasia]). Owners were interviewed to determine satisfaction with outcome of the procedure.
Results—28 rabbits underwent pelvic limb amputation, and 6 underwent thoracic limb amputation. At the last follow-up, 18 rabbits were dead, 9 were alive, and 7 were lost to follow-up. Median overall survival time was 720 days (range, 4 to 3,250 days). Acute and delayed or chronic complications were observed in 22 of 34 and 19 of 32 rabbits, respectively, most commonly difficulty ambulating, hygiene issues, and pododermatitis (cutaneous ulcers at the hock). Six rabbits were euthanized because of complications at a median of 104 days (range, 4 to 399 days) after surgery. Risk of morbidity resulting in euthanasia increased with heavier body weight and concurrent disease affecting ambulation at the time of amputation. Weight, age, and pododermatitis at the time of amputation were significantly negatively associated with survival time. Thirty-one (91%) owners were satisfied with the outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although limb amputation was tolerated by most rabbits and most owners were satisfied, complications resulted in death in 6 of 34 (18%) rabbits, and 19 of 32 (59%) developed chronic complications. Amputation in heavy rabbits or those with concurrent pododermatitis, musculoskeletal disease, or neurologic disease should be considered carefully. Because of the small sample size and retrospective nature of this study, results should be interpreted as exploratory and hypothesis generating.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of substituting mitoxantrone for doxorubicin in a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapeutic protocol for first-line treatment of dogs with multicentric intermediate- to large-cell lymphoma.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 44 dogs treated with cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisone (CMOP) and 51 dogs treated with CHOP at 12 referral institutions.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine response to treatment, progression-free survival time, and overall survival time. For dogs treated with CMOP, adverse events were also recorded.
RESULTS All 44 (100%) dogs treated with CMOP and 37 of 38 (97.4%) dogs treated with CHOP had a complete or partial response. Median progression-free survival time for dogs treated with CMOP was 165 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 143 to 187 days), and median overall survival time was 234 days (95% CI, 165 to 303 days). For dogs treated with CHOP, median progression-free survival time was 208 days (95% CI, 122 to 294 days), and median overall survival time was 348 days (95% CI, 287 to 409 days). Progression-free and overall survival times were not significantly different between groups. Overall, 9 of the 44 (20%) dogs treated with CMOP had adverse events likely or probably related to mitoxantrone, but all of these adverse events were mild.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that mitoxantrone may be a reasonable substitution in a CHOP protocol for treatment of dogs with multicentric intermediate- to large-cell lymphoma when doxorubicin is contraindicated.
Objective—To evaluate factors associated with second remission in dogs with lymphoma retreated with a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) protocol after relapse following initial treatment with a first-line 6-month CHOP protocol.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—95 dogs with lymphoma.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Remission duration was estimated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with prognosis were examined.
Results—Median remission duration after the first-line CHOP protocol was 289 days (range, 150 to 1,457 days). Overall, 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69% to 86%) of dogs achieved a complete remission following retreatment, with a median second remission duration of 159 days (95% CI, 126 to 212 days). Duration of time off chemotherapy was associated with likelihood of response to retreatment; median time off chemotherapy was 140 days for dogs that achieved a complete remission after retreatment and 84 days for dogs that failed to respond to retreatment. Second remission duration was associated with remission duration after initial chemotherapy; median second remission duration for dogs with initial remission duration ≥ 289 days was 214 days (95% CI, 168 to 491 days), compared with 98 days (95% CI, 70 to 144 days) for dogs with initial remission duration < 289 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that retreatment with the CHOP protocol can be effective in dogs with lymphoma that successfully complete an initial 6-month CHOP protocol.