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  • Author or Editor: Nicolas Athanassiadis x
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Objective—To measure the radial and longitudinal velocities of several myocardial segments of the left ventricular wall by use of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy cats and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of the technique.

Animals—6 healthy cats.

Procedure—72 TDI examinations were performed on 4 days by the same trained observer. Radial parameters included left endocardial and epicardial myocardial velocities. Longitudinal parameters included left basal, middle, and apical myocardial velocities.

Results—All velocity profiles had 1 positive systolic wave (S) and 2 negative diastolic waves (E and A). Myocardial velocities were higher in the endocardial than epicardial segments during the entire cardiac cycle (systolic wave S, 4.4 ± 0.82 and 1.9 ± 0.55; diastolic wave E, 9.7 ± 1.70 and 2.2 ± 0.74; and diastolic wave A, 5.1 ± 1.56 and 1.4 ± 0.76, respectively). Velocities were also higher in the basal than in the apical segments (systolic wave S, 4.7 ± 0.76 and 0.2 ± 0.11; diastolic wave E, 9.7 ± 1.36 and 0.5 ± 0.17; and diastolic wave A, 3.7 ± 1.51 and 0.2 ± 0.13, respectively). The lowest within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were observed in endocardial segments (8.2% and 6.5% for systolic wave S and diastolic wave E, respectively) and in the basal segment in protodiastole (5.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Repeatability and reproducibility of TDI were adequate for measurement of longitudinal and radial left ventricular motion in healthy awake cats. Validation of TDI is a prerequisite before this new technique can be recommended for clinical use. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:566–572)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine left ventricular free wall (LVFW) motions and assess their intra- and interday variability via tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy awake and anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—In the first part of the study, 72 TDI examinations (36 radial and 36 longitudinal) were performed by the same observer on 4 days during a 2-week period in all dogs. In the second part, 3 dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and vecuronium. Two measurements of each TDI parameter were made on 2 consecutive cardiac cycles when ventilation was transiently stopped. The TDI parameters included maximal systolic, early, and late diastolic LVFW velocities.

Results—The LVFW velocities were significantly higher in the endocardial than in the epicardial layers and also significantly higher in the basal than in the midsegments in systole, late diastole, and early diastole. The intraday coefficients of variation (CVs) for systole were 16.4% and 22%, and the interday CV values were 11.2% and 16.4% in the endocardial and epicardial layers, respectively. Isoflurane anesthesia significantly improved the intraday CV but induced a decrease in LVFW velocities, except late diastolic in endocardial layers and early diastolic in epicardial layers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Left ventricular motion can be adequately quantified in dogs and can provide new noninvasive indices of myocardial function. General anesthesia improved repeatability of the procedure but cannot be recommended because it induces a decrease in myocardial velocities. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:909–915)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research