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Summary

Dogs were treated with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors flunixin meglumine iv or flurbiprofen topically. Acute inflammation was induced in the eyes by disruption of the anterior lens capsule, using a neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Pupil diameter and intraocular pressure were measured before and after inducing ocular inflammation. Both drugs maintained mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure in the inflamed eyes, compared with untreated controls.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 12 horses that had cataracts removed by use of phacofragmentation were reviewed. Cataracts were removed from 16 eyes in horses ranging in age from 2 months to 15 years. Complications after surgery included corneal ulcers in 13 eyes, diffuse corneal edema in 5 eyes, and uncontrollable uveitis in 3 eyes. Follow-up information was obtained in all horses from 1 month to 3.5 years after surgery. Visual results were judged good by owners or veterinarians in 10 of the horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Two Mackay-Marg tonometers and 2 Tono-Pen tonometers were evaluated in eyes in which intraocular pressure (iop) had been altered and measured by use of a manometer. Eyes of anesthetized dogs and enucleated horse eyes were used. Compared with the manometer, none of the tonometers accurately measured iop over the range between 0 and 100 mm of Hg. However at manometer measurements from 0 to 30 mm of Hg, several of the tonometers accurately measured iop. In addition, significant differences were observed when the measurement accuracy of one tonometer was compared with that of another, especially at high iop. Coefficient of determination (r 2) values for a linear model ranged from 0.979 to 0.991 in dogs, and from 0.982 to 0.996 in horse eyes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Aqueous outflow from cannulated canine eyes was determined, using a constant-pressure perfusion technique. The effect of topically applied flurbiprofen, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, on outflow in eyes with or without neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser-induced inflammation was measured. Flurbiprofen caused decrease in aqueous outflow that was more marked in the inflamed eyes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In each of 5 groups of dogs, 0.05 ml of 1 of the following solutions was injected into the anterior chamber of both eyes: phosphate-buffered saline solution, 0.001 μg of prostaglandin F (pgf ), 0.01 μg of pgf , 0.1 μg of leukotriene D4(ltd 4), and 1 μg of ltd 4. A 10% solution of sodium fluorescein was injected iv (14 mg/kg of body weight) at the same time, and pupil size, intraocular pressure, and anterior chamber fluorescence were measured for 1 hour after injections. In a dose-dependent manner, pgf was a potent miotic. A significant effect on intraocular pressure was not detected when the groups given pgf were compared with the control group. When compared with ltd 4, pgf significantly (P < 0.05) increased the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier, as evidenced by increased fluorescein leakage into the anterior chamber. Leukotriene D4 caused a decrease in pupil size only at 5 minutes, compared with that of the control group. Intraocular pressure was greater (but not significantly) in the group given 1 μg of ltd 4.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of orally administered melatonin on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of ophthalmologically normal dogs.

ANIMALS

20 ophthalmologically normal dogs (40 eyes).

PROCEDURES

In a randomized crossover study, each dog received a 7-day regimen of melatonin (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and a placebo (150 mg of lactose powder in a capsule, PO, q 12 h), with a 7-day washout period between treatment regimens. Rebound tonometry was used to measure the IOP in both eyes of each dog 5 times at 2-hour intervals on days 0 (before administration of the first dose), 2, 4, and 7 (after administration of the last dose) of each treatment period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of treatment, day, and IOP measurement time within day on IOP.

RESULTS

Intraocular pressure was not significantly associated with treatment but was associated with day and the interaction between day and IOP measurement time within day. The mean ± SD IOP was 14.26 ± 2.95 and 14.34 ± 2.69 mm Hg for the melatonin and placebo regimens, respectively. Within each treatment period, the mean IOP tended to decrease from day 0 to 7 as well as within each day, which was attributed to the dogs becoming acclimated to the study protocol and natural diurnal variations in IOP.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that oral administration of melatonin (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg, q 12 h for 7 d) did not significantly affect the IOP of ophthalmologically normal dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Dogs were treated with flunixin meglumine, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; L-651,896, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor; and matrine, a herbal anti-inflammatory drug. Acute inflammation was induced in the eyes by disruption of the anterior lens capsule, using a neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Intraocular pressure, pupil diameter, and eicosanoid production in the aqueous humor were measured. Statistically significant effects were seen in the eyes of flunixin meglumine-treated dogs where mydriasis was maintained and aqueous prostaglandin E2 concentration was reduced.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine features of a new form of hereditary nephritis (HN) in dogs.

Animals

Parents and 16 first-generation offspring (8 males, 8 females).

Procedure

Adolescent dogs that developed renal failure were euthanatized and necropsied. Unaffected dogs were monitored until they were at least 2 years old. Studies included light and electron microscopy of kidneys obtained from affected and unaffected dogs and immunolabeling for collagen-IV chains in renal and epidermal basement membranes (BM). The nucleotide sequence of a portion of exon 35 of the COL4A5 gene was determined in genomic DNA isolated from affected and unaffected males.

Results

7 of 8 male and 2 of 8 female offspring had proteinuria and juvenile-onset chronic renal failure, which progressed more rapidly in the males. Labeling for α3-α6(IV) chains was completely absent in renal BM of affected males and segmentally absent in affected females. Expression of α1-α2(IV) chains in glomerular BM (GBM) of affected dogs was increased. Labeling for α5-α6(IV) chains in epidermal BM was absent in affected males and segmental in affected females. Ultrastructural changes characteristic of HN were observed in GBM of affected dogs. The sequence of exon 35 of COL4A5 was normal in affected dogs.

Conclusions

This renal disease is an example of X-linked dominant HN, with typical abnormalities of GBM ultrastructure and α(IV) chain expression.

Clinical Relevance and Implications for Human Medicine

Dogs with this naturally acquired progressive renal disease can be used to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment of similar disorders in human beings and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:373–383)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research