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Objective—To characterize the antigen-specific immune response to dietary proteins in cats and evaluate whether there was a qualitative or quantitative difference between the responses to dietary proteins when those proteins were fed unprocessed or as part of a canned diet.

Animals—14 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Cats were fed 2 dietary proteins (soy and casein) either as unprocessed aqueous suspensions or as part of canned diets for 21 days. Serum IgG and IgA and salivary IgA were assayed by indirect ELISA, and antigen-specific proliferation of mesenteric lymph node-derived lymphocytes was determined.

Results—Robust serum IgG and IgA responses to dietary proteins were elicited, irrespective of the form in which they were fed. Salivary IgA responses to unprocessed proteins were not detected. However, a significant salivary IgA response to the protein isolated from the canned casein diet was observed in cats fed canned casein but not in those fed unprocessed casein. Lymphocyte proliferation to the antigens was slight, and there were no significant differences between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats develop robust serum IgG and IgA responses to dietary proteins when fed as either aqueous suspensions or as part of canned diets. For certain proteins, there may be an increase and a qualitative difference in the immunogenicity of canned diets, compared with unprocessed proteins. Canned diets may not be ideal for management of cats with enteritis. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1427–1433)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effects of various concentrations of l-lysine on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1).

Sample—Cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells.

Procedures—CRFK cells were inoculated with FHV-1 and maintained in media with 20 combinations of l-arginine and l-lysine concentrations. Changes in cell viability were monitored by continuous measurement of electrical impedance of cultured cells and by observation of viral cytopathic effects. Viral load was determined by use of quantitative PCR assay in supernatants obtained from infected cultures at specified time points.

Results—Increases in l-lysine concentration had no effect on the kinetics of cell death in FHV-1-infected cultures. There was also no significant effect (r2 < 0.1) on viral DNA load for l-arginine concentrations ≥ 12 μg/mL There was a significant effect of increases in l-lysine concentration on viral DNA load in media supplemented with 6 μg of l-arginine/mL (mean ± SD slope, −4,641 ± 1,626 units; adjusted r2 = 0.45). However, the difference between the lowest (1 × 106.28 copies/μL) and highest (1 × 106.86 copies/μL) FHV-1 DNA load in these media was < 1 logarithm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The difference in FHV-1 DNA load was unlikely to be biologically important. Various l-lysine concentrations did not inhibit in vitro replication of FHV-1 at l-arginine concentrations sufficient to maintain cell growth. This conclusion was consistent with results of other studies in which investigators have not detected a consistently beneficial effect when l-lysine is administered to FHV-1-infected cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objectives—To assess the diagnostic yield of a routine fecal panel and determine whether Clostridium perfringens or C difficile toxin production is associated with acute hemorrhagic diarrheal syndrome (AHDS) in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—260 dogs with diarrhea and 177 dogs with normal feces.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for results of culture for C difficile, Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp; C perfringens fecal enterotoxin (CPE) assay via ELISA or reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) assay; fecal endospore enumeration; C difficile toxin A assay; and parasite evaluation.

Results—Prevalence of CPE in dogs with diarrhea was 22/154 (14.3%) via ELISA and 47/104 (45.2%) via RPLA assay, versus 9/74 (12%) via ELISA and 26/103 (25%) via RPLA assay in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile was 47/260 (18%) in dogs with diarrhea and 41/74 (55%) in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile toxin A was 26/254 (10.2%) in dogs with diarrhea and 0/74 in control dogs. Diagnosis of AHDS was made in 27 dogs; 8 had positive results for CPE, 7 had positive results for toxin A, and 1 had positive results for both toxins. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 13 of 260 (5%) dogs with diarrhea and 21 of 74 (28.4%) control dogs. Salmonella spp were isolated from 3 (1.2%) dogs with diarrhea.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic value of a fecal panel in dogs with diarrhea appears to be low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:52–59)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association