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  • Author or Editor: Nedim C. Buyukmihci x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Tear production, evaluated every 2 hours from 8 am to 8 pm by use of the Schirmer tear test over a 3-day period, was not significantly different between left and right eyes in 12 dogs. However, a significant diurnal pattern was evident. Tear production was lowest at midday and highest in the late afternoon/early evening. After pilocarpine HCl ophthalmic solution (0.25, 1.0, or 2.0%; 1 drop) was administered topically to the left eye of each dog at 7 am on days 4, 6, and 8, respectively, tear production was determined for both eyes every 2 hours from 8 am to 8 pm on the day of treatment. Analysis of tear values between eyes and between each eye’s treatment and pretreatment values did not reveal significant change for the treated eye, but tear production was significantly less in the untreated eye, compared with its pretreatment values and with values in the treated eye. On day 10 (48 hours after the last treatment), tear production values were not significantly different between left and right eyes, and for both eyes, were not significantly different from the mean pretreatment tear production values. Topical application of 0.25, 1.0, or 2.0% pilocarpine HCl consistently caused blepharospasm, conjunctival hyperemia, and miosis of the treated eye, without significant increase in tear production. We concluded that topical application of pilocarpine, at the concentrations used, may have little value in treating disorders involving reduced tear production.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An applanation tonometer was used to estimate intraocular pressure in normal eyes of several species of raptors. No bird had active injury or illness, though some were nonreleasable to the Wild because of previous injury. Mean (± sd) intraocular pressure was 20.6 (± 3.4) mm of Hg in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, n = 10), 20.8 (± 2.3) mm of Hg in Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni, n = 6), 21.5 (± 3.0) mm of Hg in golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, n = 7), 20.6 (± 2.0) mm of Hg in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, n = 3), and 10.8 (± 3.6) mm of Hg in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus, n = 6). There was no significant difference in intraocular pressure between hawks and eagles. Mean pressure in great horned owls was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than pressure in hawks or eagles. Reliable intraocular pressure readings could not be obtained in barn owls (Tyto alba).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Mass-like lesions of the iris were evaluated in 15 horses or ponies of various ages and breeds. Breed or gender predilection was not found. These lesions were most often found in blue irides at the 12 o'clock region. Because the lesions transilluminated and changed shape rapidly with changes in pupillary size, they were hypothesized to be zones of iris hypoplasia. Histologic evaluation of one specimen supported this interpretation. The lesions were not associated with any other ocular or systemic abnormality.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Baseline tear production values were established for both eyes of 19 dogs, using the Schirmer tear test. Atropine sulfate, 1% solution, was administered topically in the left eye of each dog once daily for 14 days. Tear production was then determined for both eyes at 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days. A final Schirmer tear test reading was obtained for each eye 5 weeks after the last atropine treatment to check for the possibility of prolonged effect. Both eyes had statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in tear production that was most marked at 120 minutes after atropine instillation, then returned to baseline values by 300 minutes after instillation. Although atropine was placed in the left eye only, statistically significant difference was not apparent in Schirmer tear test values between the left and right eyes. Tear production continued to decrease in both eyes over time, becoming statistically significant (P < 0.05) on day 9. However, on days 12 and 15, tear production in the untreated eye plateaued, but that in the treated eye continued to decrease. Five weeks after the last treatment with atropine, both eyes still had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in tear production, although Schirmer tear test values had increased from day-15 values and appeared to be returning to baseline. Association was not evident between age or body weight and magnitude of response to topically applied atropine.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association