To evaluate patient and vaccine factors associated with adverse events (AEs) recorded within 3 days of vaccine administration in a large cohort of dogs.
4,654,187 dogs vaccinated in 16,087,455 office visits in a 5-year period at 1,119 hospitals of a corporate practice.
Electronic medical records of dogs vaccinated between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2020, were searched for diagnoses of possible AEs recorded within 3 days of administration of vaccines without concurrent injectable heartworm preventative. Patient risk factors (age, sex, breed, and weight) and number and type of vaccine were extracted from records. ORs (and 95% CIs) for risk factors were estimated via multivariable logistic regression mixed models with patient as a random effect.
AEs were recorded following 31,197 vaccination visits (0.19%, or 19.4/10,000 visits). Reported AE rates increased from 1 to 4 vaccines administered and among individual vaccines were greatest for rabies vaccine. AE rate was generally inversely related to body weight, with largest rates in dogs ≤ 5 kg. The largest AE rates were noted in French Bulldogs and Dachshunds (ORs > 4 compared to mixed-breed dogs).
Risk factor information can be used to update vaccination protocols and client communication. Breed differences may indicate genetics as the primary risk factor for adverse vaccine reactions following vaccinations.
To estimate the incidence of and identify patient risk factors for an acute adverse event in dogs after administration of a sustained-release injectable heartworm preventive product.
Canine patients that received the injectable heartworm preventive product during routine preventive care visits.
Retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of canine visits within a large network of primary care veterinary clinics in which the product was administered from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2020. Visits during which vaccination(s) were also administered were excluded from analysis. Identification of acute adverse events was based on diagnostic entries and other clinical presentations suggestive of an adverse event within 3 days of product administration. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression.
In the 5-year study period, 1,399,289 visits with 694,030 dogs led to an incidence estimate of approximately 14.3 events/10,000 doses. Regression analysis found younger dogs and 7 breeds (relative to mixed-breed dogs) to have statistically significant greater odds of an event.
Understanding of incidence and patient risk factors provides veterinary professionals and dog owners more information when deciding on heartworm preventive options for their dog when considering risk for adverse event in dogs of certain ages or breeds.
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for anesthetic-related death in pet dogs and cats.
DESIGN Matched case-control study.
ANIMALS 237 dogs and 181 cats.
PROCEDURES Electronic medical records from 822 hospitals were examined to identify dogs and cats that underwent general anesthesia (including sedation) or sedation alone and had death attributable to the anesthetic episode ≤ 7 days later (case animals; 115 dogs and 89 cats) or survived > 7 days afterward (control animals [matched by species and hospital]; 122 dogs and 92 cats). Information on patient characteristics and data related to the anesthesia session were extracted. Conditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anesthetic-related death for each species.
RESULTS The anesthetic-related death rate was higher for cats (11/10,000 anesthetic episodes [0.11%]) than for dogs (5/10,000 anesthetic episodes [0.05%]). Increasing age was associated with increased odds of death for both species, as was undergoing nonelective (vs elective) procedures. Odds of death for dogs were significantly greater when preanesthetic physical examination results were not recorded (vs recorded) or when preanesthetic Hct was outside (vs within) the reference range. Odds of death for cats were greater when intra-anesthesia records for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry were absent. Underweight dogs had almost 15 times the odds of death as nonunderweight dogs; for cats, odds of death increased with increasing body weight (but not with overweight body condition).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several factors were associated with anesthetic-related death in cats and dogs. This information may be useful for development of strategies to reduce anesthetic-related risks when possible and for education of pet owners about anesthetic risks.
To examine the risk of developing an overweight or obese (O/O) body condition score (BCS) in gonadectomized versus intact dogs and, separately, the impact of age at gonadectomy on O/O outcomes among sterilized dogs.
Dogs were patients of Banfield Pet Hospital in the US from 2013 to 2019. After exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample consisted of 155,199 dogs.
In this retrospective cohort study, Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between O/O and gonadectomy status, sex, age at gonadectomy, and breed size. Models were used to estimate the risk of becoming O/O in gonadectomized versus intact dogs and, separately, to estimate risk of O/O BCS according to age at surgery among gonadectomized dogs.
Gonadectomy increased O/O risk for most dogs compared to intact dogs. Unlike most prior findings, O/O hazard ratios among gonadectomized versus intact dogs were larger for males than females. O/O risk varied according to breed size but not linearly. Sterilizing at 1 year old tended to yield a lower O/O risk compared to doing so later. Comparative O/O risk among dogs gonadectomized at 6 months versus 1 year varied by breed size. Overall patterns for obesity related to size were similar to patterns in the O/O analysis.
Veterinarians are uniquely positioned to help prevent O/O in their patients. Results extend understanding of risk factors for O/O development in dogs. In combination with information about other benefits and risks associated with gonadectomy, these data can help tailor recommendations regarding gonadectomy in individual dogs.