To describe abnormal clinical signs following duloxetine ingestion in dogs.
364 client-owned dogs that ingested duloxetine.
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Poison Control Center electronic database was searched for records of dogs with duloxetine ingestion between January 2012 and December 2016. Data collected included age, body weight, breed, duloxetine exposure and dose, clinical signs, and overall outcome. Clinical signs were categorized as either neurologic, digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, or metabolic and endocrine. Outcomes were categorized as no clinical signs, fully recovered, died, or unknown.
Clinical signs developed in 55 of the 364 (15.1%) dogs with known ingestion of duloxetine. The most common clinical signs were lethargy (22/55 [40%]), mydriasis (18/55 [33%]), vomiting (11/55 [20%]), and trembling (6/55 [11%]). Dogs that ingested an estimated dose of duloxetine ≥ 20 mg/kg (9.1 mg/lb) were more likely to have had abnormal clinical signs than were dogs that ingested < 20 mg/kg.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings indicated that most dogs in the present study did not have clinical signs associated with ingestion of duloxetine and that development of clinical signs varied by individual dog. Further information is needed to determine toxic dose ranges for duloxetine ingestion in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:1161–1166)
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.
To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only.
351 dogs definitively diagnosed with EHPSS at ≥ 5 years of age.
Medical records from 2009 to 2019 at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs at diagnosis, clinicopathologic data, surgical and medical treatments, shunt morphology, clinical signs and medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis, and survival time.
351 dogs (M, 119 [33.9%]; S, 232 [66.1%]) were included in the study. Survival time was longer with surgery than medical management (hazard ratio, 4.2; M, 3.4 years; S, 10.9 years). Continued clinical signs at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common with medical management (M, 40% [33/88]; S, 14% [21/155]). Continued medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common in the medical management group (M, 78% [69/88]; S, 34% [53/155]). Perioperative mortality rate was 7.3%.
Dogs diagnosed at ≥ 5 years of age with EHPSS have significantly better survival times and fewer clinical signs with surgical attenuation, compared with medical management. Older dogs have similar surgical mortality rates to dogs of all ages after surgical EHPSS attenuation.