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Two dogs were evaluated because of chronic digestive problems. One dog (dog 1) was a 6-year-old sexually intact female Rottweiler that had diarrhea (watery to loose feces) and sporadic vomiting of 3 months' duration. Dog 1 had lost 10 kg (22 lb) of body weight during this period. The other dog (dog 2) was a 4-year-old sexually intact female French Bulldog that had vomiting and weight loss (unknown value) of 4 weeks' duration. According to the information provided by the owners, there was no geographic or domestic connection between the 2 dogs.

Clinical and Gross Findings

At the initial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, morphine, dexmedetomidine, and a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Design—Randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

Animals—44 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Procedures—Dogs received intra-articular injections of saline solution (0.2 mL/kg [0.09 mL/lb]), morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]), dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg [1.14 μg/lb]), or a combination of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg). Intra-articular injections of the stifle joint were performed after completion of the corrective osteotomy procedure, just prior to skin closure. Signs of pain were assessed every 2 hours thereafter on the basis of mean behavioral and objective pain scores. Dogs with pain scores exceeding predetermined thresholds were given hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], SC) as rescue analgesia.

Results—Time to rescue analgesia did not significantly differ between dogs that underwent TTA versus TPLO. No significant difference in time to rescue analgesia was found among dogs receiving intra-articular injections of dexmedetomidine (median, 6 hours; range, 2 to 10 hours), morphine (median, 7 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours), or saline solution (median, 5 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours). However, time to rescue analgesia for dogs receiving intra-articular injection of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination (median, 10 hours; range, 6 to 14 hours) was significantly longer than the time to rescue analgesia for other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-articular administration of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination provided longer-lasting postoperative analgesia, compared with either morphine or dexmedetomidine alone, in dogs undergoing TTA or TPLO. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1291–1297)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association