Objective—To evaluate associations between economic and performance outcomes with the number of treatments after an initial diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in commercial feedlot cattle.
Animals—212,867 cattle arriving in a Midwestern feedlot between 2001 and 2006.
Procedures—An economic model was created to estimate net returns. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations between the frequency of BRD treatments and other demographic variables with economic and performance outcomes.
Results—Net returns decreased with increasing number of treatments for BRD. However, the magnitude depended on the season during which cattle arrived at the feedlot, with significantly higher returns for cattle arriving during fall and summer than for cattle arriving during winter and spring. For fall arrivals, there were higher mean net returns for cattle that were never treated ($39.41) than for cattle treated once ($29.49), twice ($16.56), or ≥ 3 times (−$33.00). For summer arrivals, there were higher least squares mean net returns for cattle that were never treated ($31.83) than for cattle treated once ($20.22), twice ($6.37), or ≥ 3 times ($−42.56). Carcass traits pertaining to weight and quality grade were deemed responsible for differences in net returns among cattle receiving different numbers of treatments after an initial diagnosis of BRD.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in economic net returns and performance outcomes for feedlot cattle were determined on the basis of number of treatments after an initial diagnosis of BRD; the analysis accounted for the season of arrival, sex, and weight class.
Effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in patients with CCLR after TPLO surgery by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), percentage weight bearing, lameness using a short form of a composite measure pain scale, evaluated by the clinician and owners, and surgical site infection.
54 client-owned dogs with CCLR undergoing unilateral TPLO surgery were enrolled in this study between April 5, 2021, through April 10, 2022.
The study population was randomly assigned to either a treatment group receiving PMBT (24 dogs) or a control group (30 dogs). PMBT was performed on the treatment group immediately after induction, and 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 8 weeks postoperatively. The control group received sham PMBT (device turned off) at the same time. Evaluation of CRP, CMPS-SF, evidence of SSI, and %WB were evaluated for all dogs 24 hours preoperatively, and then 24 hours, 48 hours, and 8 weeks postoperatively. Owners completed CMPS-SF and subjective evaluations weekly for 8 weeks postoperatively.
No statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups when evaluating CRP, %WB, and CMPS-SF by the clinician and weekly evaluation of the CMPS-SF by owners. Although no statistically significant differences were found in patients developing surgical site infections between treatment groups, SSI was only observed in patients in the control group (5/30, 16.6%). Most were minor/superficial infections (4/30 13.3%), and a single dog (1/30, 3.3%) had a major/deep surgical site infection.
Although with promising but not statistically significant differences between groups, surgical site infections may be reduced after PBMT application.
Objective—To determine the precision of a clinical illness score (CIS) system for identification of clinical signs in calves with experimentally induced Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia and to evaluate the accuracy of CISs in relation to pulmonary consolidation scores assigned at necropsy.
Animals—178 Holstein bull calves that were 52 to 91 days of age at the time of pneumonia induction.
Procedures—5 trials involved calves challenged with M bovis and scheduled for euthanasia and necropsy 12 to 24 days afterward. Nine veterinarian observers with various degrees of experience simultaneously assigned CISs to calves within 48 hours before necropsy. The precision of the CIS system among observers was evaluated via the Cohen κ statistic. The accuracy of each observer's CISs relative to 6 cutoffs (≥ 5%, ≥ 10%, ≥ 15%, ≥ 20%, ≥ 25%, and ≥ 30%) of percentage pulmonary consolidation was determined by comparing prenecropsy CISs with the gross pulmonary consolidation scores assigned at necropsy. Estimates for sensitivity and specificity were calculated relative to the 6 pulmonary consolidation cutoffs.
Results—A slight level of agreement was evident among observers (κ range, 0.10 to 0.21 for the individual trials) and overall (κ = 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.24). Median sensitivity and specificity changed with pulmonary consolidation score cutoff. Median sensitivity for all observers ranged from 81.7% to 98.9%, and median specificity ranged from 80.8% to 94.9% over all cutoff values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement among observers assigning CISs to calves was low; the accuracy of the CIS system in relation to that of pulmonary consolidation scoring varied with the severity of consolidation considered to represent bovine respiratory disease.
To determine if left ventricular systolic function on echocardiography, systemic blood pressure, and electrocardiography change with a clinically accepted intravenous (IV) diltiazem constant rate infusion (CRI) compared to a control.
10 healthy client-owned adult dogs.
Prospective, masked, crossover study from May 27, 2021, to August 22, 2021. Dogs were randomized to receive diltiazem (loading dose of 240 μg/kg, IV followed by a CRI of 6 μg/kg/min for 300 minutes) or the same volume of 5% dextrose in water (D5W) administered IV followed by the opposite intervention after a 7-day washout. Blood pressure was monitored during each CRI, and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic studies were performed immediately before the CRI and during the last hour of the CRI.
Postdiltiazem systolic time interval (STI) (median, 0.30; range, 0.16 to 0.34) was significantly lower than post-D5W STI (median, 0.32; range, 0.22 to 0.40; P = .046). All other echocardiographic parameters did not differ significantly between each of the groups after receiving diltiazem or D5W. Systemic blood pressure did not change significantly with either diltiazem (P = .450) or D5W (P = .940), and none of the dogs became hypotensive at any point in the study. Expectedly, negative dromotropy was observed with diltiazem.
A significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function was not appreciated in healthy dogs receiving diltiazem at a clinically accepted intravenous infusion rate at this dosing regimen. Further studies are needed in dogs with cardiac disease.
OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH).
DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.
ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm.
PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval.
RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted.
To evaluate associations between weather conditions and management factors with the incidence of death attributable to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in high-risk auction-sourced beef calves.
Cohorts (n = 3,339) of male beef calves (545,866) purchased by 1 large cattle feeding operation from 216 locations and transported to 1 of 89 feeding locations (backgrounding location or feedlot) with similar management protocols.
Associations between weather conditions and management factors on the day of purchase (day P) and during the first week at the feeding location and cumulative BRDC mortality incidence within the first 60 days on feed were estimated in a mixed-effects negative binomial regression model.
Significant factors in the final model were weaning status; degree of com-mingling; body weight; transport distance; season; precipitation, mean wind speed, and maximum environmental temperature on day P; environmental temperature range in the first week after arrival at the feeding location; and interactions between distance and wind speed and between body weight and maximum environmental temperature. Precipitation and wind speed on day P were associated with lower cumulative BRDC mortality incidence, but wind speed was associated only among calves transported long distances (≥ 1,082.4 km). Higher mean maximum temperature on day P increased the incidence of cumulative mortality among calves with low body weights (< 275.5 kg).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Several weather conditions on day P and during the first week after arrival were associated with incidence of BRDC mortality. The results may have implications for health- and economic-risk management, especially for high-risk calves and calves that are transported long distances.
To determine anti-bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antibody titers for nasal secretions and serum from beef calves following administration of a modified-live (MLV) BRSV vaccine.
60 healthy newborn purebred beef calves.
Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intranasal (IN)-SC (IN MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and SC MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), SC-IN (SC MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), or NO-IN (no vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age). Nasal secretion and serum samples were collected for determination of anti-BRSV antibodies within 24 hours of birth and 2 and 6 months of age.
Titers of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in serum were similar among groups at each sampling time. Within 24 hours of birth, nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers were negligible. At 2 months, mean nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers for calves in IN-SC, SC-IN, and NO-IN groups were 192.84, 224.49, and 114.71, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Concentrations of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in the nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in the serum of young beef calves following an MLV BRSV vaccine protocol that consisted of IN or SC vaccine within 24 hours of birth and vice versa at 2 months of age were not different from that following only an IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age. However, the lack of any differences may have been attributed to other factors. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:746–751)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of meloxicam administration before long-distance transport on inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function of cattle at feedlot arrival.
ANIMALS 60 healthy yearling beef steers.
PROCEDURES Single-source steers were assigned to a transported (n = 40) or nontransported (20) group. Then, half of the steers within each group were assigned to receive meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) or a lactose placebo (1 bolus/steer, PO). All steers were transported approximately 1,300 km overnight to a feedlot; however, the nontransported group was moved before treatment (meloxicam or placebo) administration and allowed a 17-day acclimation period, whereas the transported group was moved immediately after treatment administration on day −1. Blood samples for measurement of inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function were collected from all steers on days −1, 0, and 3.
RESULTS For steers that received meloxicam, mean plasma meloxicam concentration for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. For steers that received the placebo, mean haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase-9 complex for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. Mean haptoglobin concentration, neutrophil L-selectin intensity, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte count for the transported group were significantly greater than those for the nontransported group. Mean substance P concentration for nontransported steers that received meloxicam was significantly lower than that for the other 3 treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated meloxicam administration to healthy steers immediately before long-distance transport did not significantly mitigate the effects of transport-induced stress on leukocyte function or inflammatory markers.