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  • Author or Editor: Naomi J. Walker x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether platelets obtained from cats expressed glycoprotein Ib (GPIb).

Sample Population—Platelets obtained from 11 specific-pathogen-free cats.

Procedure—Platelets were analyzed by use of immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western immunoblot analysis, and immunoprecipitation.

Results—Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed the protein on the surface of feline platelets. Biochemical studies (western immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation) revealed a 140-kd membrane glycoprotein. Additional biochemical studies revealed that feline GPIb was sensitive to proteolysis, because platelet cytoskeletons prepared with low concentrations of a calpain inhibitor (ie, leupeptin; 100 µg/ml) had substantial proteolysis, and there was an association of protein fragments with the actin cytoskeleton.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these results indicate that feline platelets express a 140-kd membrane protein that is recognized by monoclonal antibodies developed against GPIb. Application of standardized ELISA to quantitate glycocalicin, the water-soluble fragment of GPIb, may provide important information on the production of microvesicles, increased platelet turnover, and abnormal proteolysis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:195–201)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether platelet growth factors are preserved in supernatants obtained from rehydrated trehalose-stabilized, freeze-dried (lyophilized) equine platelets and whether those growth factors stimulate fibroblast proliferation and migration and enhance fibroblast-associated contraction in a collagen gel assay.

Animals—6 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedures—Blood samples were obtained from 6 horses, and washed platelets were prepared via differential centrifugation. Washed platelets were freeze-dried in a physiologic buffer with a mixture of trehalose and polyethylene glycol 4000. Rehydrated platelet supernatants and releasates prepared from fresh washed platelets stimulated with thrombin or platelet-activating factor were evaluated for transforming growth factor β1 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB by use of ELISAs. Effects of rehydrated freeze-dried platelet supernatants on fibroblast proliferation, migration, and collagen gel contraction were compared with effects of 1%, 2.5%, or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).

Results—Supernatants from freeze-dried platelets contained similar amounts of growth factors as thrombin- and platelet-activating factor–stimulated platelet releasates. The supernatants significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation and migration in a scratch assay, compared with FBS-free control or low (1%) FBS conditions. Additionally, supernatants from freeze-dried platelets enhanced contraction of fibroblast-seeded collagen gels, compared with the effect of 1% FBS.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The preparation technique preserved platelet growth factors, enhanced fibroblast proliferation and migration, and improved fibroblastseeded collagen gel contraction under conditions of low FBS concentration; these platelet supernatant preparations may prove useful as an aid to conventional wound management.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-biotin labeling of equine RBCs and determine posttransfusion survival of autologous equine RBCs stored in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1) for 0, 1, 14, and 28 days.

Animals—13 healthy adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—Serial dilutions of biotin and streptavidin-phycoerythrin (PE) were evaluated in vitro in blood collected from 3 horses. One horse was used to determine RBC distribution and recovery. Twelve horses were allocated to 4 groups for in vivo experiments in which blood was collected into CPDA-1. Blood was labeled with biotin and reinfused or stored at 4°C for 1, 14, or 28 days prior to labeling with NHS-biotin and reinfusion. Posttransfusion blood samples were collected 15 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after reinfusion. Biotin-labeled RBCs were detected via flow cytometry by use of streptavidin-PE. Posttransfusion lifespan of RBCs and RBC half-life were determined.

Results—Optimal biotin concentration was 0.04 pg of biotin/RBC, and the optimal streptavidin-PE ratio was 1.2 μg of streptavidin-PE/1 × 106 RBCs. Posttransfusion lifespan of autologous RBCs was 99, 89, 66, and 59 days after storage for 0, 1, 14, and 28 days, respectively. Storage did not result in significant alterations in RBC lifespan. Mean posttransfusion RBC half-life was 50, 45, 33, and 29 days for 0, 1, 14, and 28 days of storage, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biotin can be used to label equine RBCs for RBC survival studies. Posttransfusion survival of equine autologous RBCs was greater than previously reported.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To optimize the isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from umbilical-cord blood (UCB), identify variables that predicted successful MSC isolation, and determine whether shipping, processing, and cryopreservation altered MSC viability, recovery rates, and expansion kinetics.

Sample Population—UCB samples from 79 Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse mares.

Procedures—UCB samples were processed to reduce volume and remove RBCs. Nucleated cells (NCs) were cryopreserved or grown in various culture conditions to optimize MSC monolayer expansion and proliferation. Donor and UCB-sample factors were analyzed to determine their influence on the success of MSC isolation and monolayer expansion.

Results—MSCs capable of multilineage in vitro differentiation were expanded from > 80% of UCB samples. Automated UCB processing and temperature-controlled shipping facilitated sterile and standardized RBC reduction and NC enrichment from UCB samples. The number of NCs after UCB samples were processed was the sole variable that predicted successful MSC expansion. The UCB-derived MSCs and NCs were successfully cryopreserved and thawed with no decrease in cell recovery, viability, or MSC proliferation. The use of fibronectin-coated culture plates and reduction of incubator oxygen tension from 20% to 5% improved the MSC isolation rate. Some UCB-derived MSC clones proliferated for > 20 passages before senescence. Onset of senescence was associated with specific immunocytochemical changes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equine UCB samples appeared to be a rich source of readily obtainable, highly proliferative MSCs that could be banked for therapeutic use.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research