To evaluate the clinical impact on quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) on single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PSS) in dogs.
21 client-owned dogs with single extrahepatic PSS and 5 healthy Beagles.
In all dogs, CEUS was performed to calculate the rising time (RT), rising rate (RR), and portal vein-to-hepatic parenchyma transit time (ΔHP-PV) from the time-intensity curve obtained in the hepatic parenchyma and portal vein. All dogs in the PSS group underwent preoperative CT angiography (CTA) and surgery. The CEUS variables in the PSS group were compared with those in the healthy dogs (control group) and were analyzed for shunt types and grades of intrahepatic portal venous branches based on CTA findings, intraoperative portal pressure, and surgical procedures.
All 3 CEUS variables showed no significant differences between the PSS and control groups. The RT and ΔHP-PV in the left gastrophrenic shunt group were significantly longer than in the other shunt types. In the intrahepatic portal vascularity, the RT in grade 1 was significantly shorter than in grades 3 and 4, and the RR in grade 1 was significantly higher than in grade 4. The RT and ΔHP-PV were significantly correlated with portal pressure variables. The RT in dogs with partial ligation was significantly shorter than in dogs with complete ligation and percutaneous transvenous coil embolization.
Quantitative assessments of CEUS may be useful for estimating intrahepatic portal vascularity in dogs with single extrahepatic PSS.
To describe the clinical, diagnostic, and pathological features and postoperative prognosis of canine combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA).
14 privately owned dogs that underwent surgical treatment.
The medical records, including signalment, clinical signs, blood test, urine analysis, computed tomography (CT) findings, intraoperative findings, and pathological findings, were retrospectively reviewed in the dogs with cHCC-CCA.
Of 306 dogs that underwent surgical removal of hepatic masses, 14 dogs (4.6%) were pathologically confirmed to have cHCC-CCA. Median age and body weight were 11.3 years and 7.3 kg, respectively. There were no specific clinicopathological findings for cHCC-CCA. CT revealed a massive hepatic mass in all dogs and the inclusion of cyst-like lesions within the mass in 13 dogs. Intrahepatic metastases were found at time of surgery in 2 dogs (14.3%). Of the residual 12 dogs, 1 dog showed postoperative formation of intrahepatic nodules suggestive of metastases and another had intrahepatic and pulmonary nodules and a forelimb skin mass, suggesting postoperative metastases. The median survival time of the patients with cHCC-CCA was 700 days (range, 10 to 869 days) after surgery.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to describe the clinical, diagnostic, and pathological features and postoperative prognosis of canine cHCC-CCA. The clinical and diagnostic features of canine cHCC-CCA might be more similar to those of HCC rather than to those of CCA, but the preoperative diagnosis differentiating between HCC and cHCC-CCA was challenging. Our study suggests that the postoperative prognosis of canine patients with cHCC-CCA is similar to that of dogs with HCC.