Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in healthy green iguanas following PO and IV administration and assess potential toxicity.
Animals—21 healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana).
Procedures—To assess pharmacokinetics, 13 iguanas were administered a single dose (0.2 mg/kg) of meloxicam PO and, 14 days later, the same dose IV. To assess potential toxicity, 4 iguanas were given meloxicam at a dosage of 1 or 5 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 12 days, and results of histologic examination were compared with results for another 4 iguanas given a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg).
Results—There were no significant differences between PO and IV administration with regard to terminal half-life (mean ± SD, 12.96 ± 8.05 hours and 9.93 ± 4.92 hours, respectively), mean area under the curve to the last measured concentration (5.08 ± 1.62 μg•h/mL and 5.83 ± 2.49 μg•h/mL), volume of distribution (745 ± 475 mL/kg and 487 ± 266 mL/kg), or clearance (40.17 ± 10.35 mL/kg/h and 37.17 ± 16.08 mL/kg/h). Maximum plasma concentration was significantly greater following IV (0.63 ± 0.17 μg/mL) versus PO (0.19 ± 0.07 μg/mL) administration. Time from administration to maximum plasma concentration and mean residence time were significantly longer following PO versus IV administration. Daily administration of high doses (1 or 5 mg/kg) for 12 days did not induce any histologic changes in gastric, hepatic, or renal tissues.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that administration of meloxicam at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV or PO in green iguanas would result in plasma concentrations > 0.1 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1277–1283)
Objective—To characterize clinical features of avian
vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in American coots.
Animals—26 AVM-affected American coots and 12
Procedures—Complete physical, neurologic, hematologic,
and plasma biochemical evaluations were
performed. Affected coots received supportive care.
All coots died or were euthanatized, and AVM status
was confirmed via histopathologic findings.
Results—3 severely affected coots were euthanatized
immediately after examination. Seventeen
affected coots were found dead within 7 days of
admission, but 5 affected coots survived > 21 days
and had signs of clinical recovery. Abnormal physical
examination findings appeared to be related to general
debilitation. Ataxia (88%), decreased withdrawal
reflexes (88%), proprioceptive deficits (81%),
decreased vent responses (69%), beak or tongue
weakness (42%), and head tremors (31%), as well as
absent pupillary light responses (46%), anisocoria
(15%), apparent blindness (4%), nystagmus (4%),
and strabismus (4%) were detected. Few gross
abnormalities were detected at necropsy, but histologically,
all AVM-affected coots had severe vacuolation
of white matter of the brain. None of the control
coots had vacuolation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
there was considerable variability in form and severity
of clinical neurologic abnormalities, clinical signs
common in AVM-affected birds were identified.
Clinical recovery of some AVM-affected coots can
occur when supportive care is administered. Until the
etiology is identified, caution should be exercised
when rehabilitating and releasing coots thought to be
affected by AVM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: