Objective—To compare direct measurements of
canine oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation and blood
oxygen content (ContO2) in healthy dogs with analyzer-calculated values derived by use of a human HbO2
relationship and with hand-calculated values derived
by use of a canine HbO2 relationship.
Animals—17 healthy dogs.
Procedure—3-mL samples of heparinized arterial and
jugular venous blood were collected from each dog.
The pH, PCO2, PO2, hemoglobin, HbO2, carboxyhemoglobin,
methemoglobin, and ContO2 were measured;
HbO2 and ContO2 were calculated automatically by
analyzers and also hand-calculated. Blood gas analyzer–calculated and hand-calculated HbO2 values were
compared with co-oximeter–measured HbO2 values.
Analyzer-calculated and hand-calculated ContO2 values
were compared with oxygen content analyzermeasured
Results—Hand-calculated HbO2 values for arterial
and jugular venous samples were slightly but significantly
lower than those calculated by a blood gas analyzer
or obtained from a co-oximeter. Hand-calculated
and analyzer-calculated arterial and venous ContO2
were similar to measured values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although certain
HbO2 and ContO2 values generated by use of the
different methods were significantly different, these
differences are unlikely to be clinically important in
healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1273–1277)
Case Description—A 9-year-old dog was evaluated for traumatic cervical myelopathy after a surgical attempt to realign and stabilize the C2 and C3 vertebrae.
Clinical Findings—The dog could not ventilate spontaneously and was tetraplegic; positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) was maintained. Myelography and computed tomography revealed spinal cord compression with subluxation of the C2 and C3 vertebrae and extrusion of the C2-3 intervertebral disk.
Treatment and Outcome—Surgically, the protruding disk material was removed and the vertebrae were realigned with screws and wire. For PPV, assist control ventilation in volume control mode and then in pressure control mode was used in the first 6 days; this was followed by synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation until 33 days after the injury; then only continuous positive airway pressure was provided until the dog could breathe unassisted, 37 days after the injury. Physical therapy that included passive range of motion exercises, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and functional weight-bearing positions was administered until the dog was discharged 46 days after injury; the dog was severely ataxic and tetraparetic but could walk. Therapy was continued at home, and 1 year later, the dog could run and had moderate ataxia and tetraparesis.
Clinical Relevance—Hypoventilation with tetraparesis in traumatic spinal cord injury can be successfully treated with PPV exceeding 30 days, surgery, and physical therapy.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of 1 IM injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) in American black ducks (Anas rubripes).
Animals—20 adult American black ducks (6 in a preliminary experiment and 14 in a primary experiment).
Procedures—Dose and route of administration of CCFA for the primary experiment were determined in a preliminary experiment. In the primary experiment, CCFA (10 mg/kg, IM) was administered to ducks. Ducks were allocated into 2 groups, and blood samples were obtained 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 48, 96, 144, 192, and 240 hours or 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 72, 120, 168, and 216 hours after administration of CCFA. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAEs) were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were evaluated by use of a naive pooled-data approach.
Results—The area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 hours to infinity was 783 h•μg/mL, maximum plasma concentration observed was 13.1 μg/mL, time to maximum plasma concentration observed was 24 hours, terminal phase half-life was 32.0 hours, time that concentrations of CFAEs were higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (1.0 μg/mL) for many pathogens of birds was 123 hours, and time that concentrations of CFAEs were higher than the target plasma concentration (4.0 μg/mL) was 73.3 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the time that CFAE concentrations were higher than the target plasma concentration, a dosing interval of 3 days can be recommended for future multidose CCFA studies.
Objective—To identify biomarker proteins for B-cell lymphoma in canine serum by use of surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and build classification trees with multiple biomarkers that have high sensitivity and specificity for that tumor type.
Sample Population—Sera from 29 dogs with B-cell lymphoma and 87 control dogs (approx equal numbers of healthy dogs, dogs with malignant cancers other than B-cell lymphoma, and dogs with various nonneoplastic diseases or conditions).
Procedures—Serum samples were fractionated chromatographically and analyzed via SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Peak amplitudes of the spectra from the 2 sample groups were compared to identify potential biomarker peaks, and classification trees were built by use of computer software to detect patterns formed by multiple biomarkers among SELDI data sets.
Results—Several biomarker protein peaks in canine serum were identified, and a classification tree was built on the basis of 3 biomarker protein peaks. With 10-fold cross-validation of the sample set, the best individual serum biomarker peak had 75% sensitivity and 86% specificity and the classification tree had 97% sensitivity and 91% specificity for the classification of B-cell lymphoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of biomarker proteins identified in canine serum, classification trees were constructed, which may be useful for the development of a diagnostic test for B-cell lymphoma in dogs. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these biomarkers are useful for screening susceptible dog populations or for monitoring disease status during treatment and remission of B-cell lymphoma in dogs.
Objective—To characterize clinical features of avian
vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in American coots.
Animals—26 AVM-affected American coots and 12
Procedures—Complete physical, neurologic, hematologic,
and plasma biochemical evaluations were
performed. Affected coots received supportive care.
All coots died or were euthanatized, and AVM status
was confirmed via histopathologic findings.
Results—3 severely affected coots were euthanatized
immediately after examination. Seventeen
affected coots were found dead within 7 days of
admission, but 5 affected coots survived > 21 days
and had signs of clinical recovery. Abnormal physical
examination findings appeared to be related to general
debilitation. Ataxia (88%), decreased withdrawal
reflexes (88%), proprioceptive deficits (81%),
decreased vent responses (69%), beak or tongue
weakness (42%), and head tremors (31%), as well as
absent pupillary light responses (46%), anisocoria
(15%), apparent blindness (4%), nystagmus (4%),
and strabismus (4%) were detected. Few gross
abnormalities were detected at necropsy, but histologically,
all AVM-affected coots had severe vacuolation
of white matter of the brain. None of the control
coots had vacuolation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
there was considerable variability in form and severity
of clinical neurologic abnormalities, clinical signs
common in AVM-affected birds were identified.
Clinical recovery of some AVM-affected coots can
occur when supportive care is administered. Until the
etiology is identified, caution should be exercised
when rehabilitating and releasing coots thought to be
affected by AVM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: