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  • Author or Editor: Nancy A. Frank x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate Brucella canis seropositivity rates for purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders, describe epidemiological findings in infected commercial dog-production facilities, and characterize B canis infection in pet dogs and the risk to human health.

DESIGN Retrospective descriptive study.

SAMPLE 2,799 canine specimens submitted to the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for B canis testing and records of B canis reports provided to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2007 through 2016.

PROCEDURES Results of B canis laboratory tests and epidemiological findings for reported cases of B canis were reviewed and summarized. Federal and state public health officials were interviewed regarding human B canis infection. State veterinarians were interviewed regarding canine brucellosis reporting and control procedures.

RESULTS Estimated B canis seropositivity was 0.4% among purebred Michigan dogs owned by noncommercial breeders. Infection was confirmed in dogs from 17 commercial dog-production facilities, 3 shelters, and 1 rescue agency. Estimated infection prevalence in production facilities ranged from 2 of 22 (9%) to 5 of 6 (83%). Transfer of infected dogs involved 22 Michigan counties and 11 states. Seven of 20 privately owned infected dogs had diskospondylitis; I also had uveitis. Fifty-three veterinary hospital or diagnostic laboratory personnel had inadvertent exposure to the pathogen. Brucella canis was isolated from 1 commercial production facility owner.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE B canis was uncommon in purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders but endemic in Michigan commercial facilities producing dogs destined to become household pets. Infected pet dogs caused human B canis exposure, and several pet dogs had debilitating disease not associated with the reproductive system.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure blood lead concentrations (BLCs) in dogs living in Flint, Mich, following a declared water crisis and to assess potential associations of BLCs with demographic data, water sources, and clinical signs in these dogs.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 284 dogs residing in Flint, Mich (test population), and 47 dogs residing in East Lansing, Mich (control population), and immediately adjacent areas.

PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected at free screening clinics in Flint (test population) and at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Medical Center (control population). Owners of test population dogs completed questionnaires providing demographic and clinical information. Hematologic evaluations were performed; BLCs were measured by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry.

RESULTS 4 of 284 test population dogs had BLCs > 50 ppb; an additional 20 had BLCs > 20 ppb. Overall, BLCs of test population dogs were higher than those of control dogs. Within the test population, young dogs (≤ 2 years of age) had higher BLCs than old dogs (≥ 6 years of age). Only 7.2% of test population dogs were drinking unfiltered tap water at the time of screening; however, dogs that had been receiving filtered or bottled water for ≤ 3 months before screening had higher BLCs than did those that received such water for > 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Taken together, findings suggested that the impact of the Flint water crisis extended to companion animals. Results highlighted the importance of maintaining awareness of lead exposure and considering both human and animal well-being in cases of environmental toxicant exposures.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association