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  • Author or Editor: Nan Zhang x
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Objective—To describe a laparoscopic technique for percutaneous tube cystostomy in dogs.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—8 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—A laparoscope portal and 2 instrumental portals were created in the abdomen of anesthetized dogs that were in dorsal recumbency. Intracorporeal suturing was performed to place 2 simple interrupted sutures between the ventral body wall and urinary bladder. A purse-string suture was placed in the urinary bladder wall approximately 1 cm cranial to the 2 simple interrupted sutures. A stab incision was made into the urinary bladder in the middle of the purse-string suture; an 8F Foley catheter was inserted through the stab incision and into the urinary bladder. Two other sutures were placed between the ventral body wall and bladder 1 cm cranial to the Foley catheter to create a cystopexy. The Foley catheter was secured to the skin with a finger-trap suture and was attached to a closed urine collection bag. All dogs underwent follow-up laparoscopy 1 month later.

Results—Median time for laparoscopic percutaneous tube cystostomy was 85 minutes (range, 72 to 103 minutes); there were no major intraoperative or postoperative complications. On follow-up laparoscopy, focal fibrous adhesions between the ventral body wall and bladder were observed in all dogs and omentum attached to the cystopexy site was observed in 2 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, a laparoscopic percutaneous tube cystostomy was accomplished in healthy dogs by use of a 3-portal technique and appeared to be an effective and safe procedure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate differentiation of canine adipose–derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) into ligamentoblasts on tensioned collagen type I (Col1) templates in a perfusion culture system.


Infrapatellar fat pad ASCs from healthy stifle joints of 6 female mixed-breed dogs.


Third-passage ASCs (6 × 106 cells/template) were loaded onto suture-augmented Col1 templates under 15% static strain in perfusion bioreactors. Forty-eight ASC-Col1 constructs were incubated with ligamentogenic (ligamentogenic constructs; n = 24) or stromal medium (stromal constructs; 24) for up to 21 days. Specimens were collected from each construct after 2 hours (day 0) and 7, 14, and 21 days of culture. Cell number, viability, distribution, and morphology; construct collagen content; culture medium procollagen-I-N-terminal peptide concentration; and gene expression were compared between ligamentogenic and stromal constructs.


ASCs adhered to collagen fibers. Cell numbers increased from days 0 to 7 and days 14 to 21 for both construct types. Relative to stromal constructs, cell morphology and extracellular matrix were more mature and collagen content on day 21 and procollagen-I-N-terminal peptide concentration on days 7 and 21 were greater for ligamentogenic constructs. Ligamentogenic constructs had increased expression of the genes biglycan on day 7, decorin throughout the culture period, and Col1, tenomodulin, fibronectin, and tenascin-c on day 21; expression of Col1, tenomodulin, and tenascin-c increased between days 7 and 21.


Ligamentogenic medium was superior to stromal medium for differentiation of ASCs to ligamentoblasts on suture-augmented Col1 scaffolds. Customized ligament neotissue may augment treatment options for dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research