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Authors Amy Fulton and Nadine Fiani
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 10-year-old 40.0-kg (88.1-lb) castrated male Staffordshire Terrier was examined because of acute onset of pain and swelling involving the rostral aspect of the left mandible. The owner had noticed gingivitis at the level of the left mandibular premolar teeth approximately 1 month previously. Otherwise, there was no history of inappetence, reluctance to prehend, signs of pain during mastication, or changes in attitude.

Apart from intermittent lameness involving the left thoracic limb, the dog was reported to be otherwise healthy. The referring veterinarian had prescribed amoxicillin trihydrate–clavulanate potassium (6.25 mg/kg [2.8 mg/lb], PO, q 12

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors Nadine Fiani and Boaz Arzi
History and Physical Examination Findings

An 18-month-old 22.7-kg (50.0-lb) spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of halitosis and generalized abnormally shaped teeth. The dog had been adopted from a shelter 7 months earlier, and history prior to this time was unknown. The owner reported that the dog was otherwise healthy, did not have any signs of difficulty or pain related to prehension or mastication, and had been seen chewing on wooden sticks and rawhide bones without signs of discomfort.

Results of a general physical examination were unremarkable. Oral examination revealed mild to moderate plaque and calculus accumulation, mild gingivitis,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors Nadine Fiani and Boaz Arzi
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 6-year-old 29.3-kg (64.46-lb) sexually intact male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for signs of oral pain. According to the owner, the dog was first noted to have signs of oral pain approximately 1 year prior to examination. The owner reported that the dog was reluctant to play tug of war with rope toys and would routinely, after picking a ball up with the rostral portion of its mouth, chatter its jaw and drop the ball. The owner also reported that the dog avoided dry food and preferred a softer diet. The dog had a long

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors Boaz Arzi and Nadine Fiani
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 5-year-old 4.4-kg (9.7-lb) castrated male Himalayan cat was evaluated because of a mass involving the rostral portions of the mandibles. The cat had been adopted at an early age, and the medical history was unremarkable. The cat was reportedly otherwise healthy and showed no signs of pain or difficulties with prehension or mastication. The owner reported first noticing the mass 2 weeks earlier.

Results of a general physical examination were unremarkable. Extraoral examination revealed a 15 × 10 × 10-mm well-circumscribed, firm mass involving the rostral portion of the right mandible; signs of pain

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 12-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was referred for evaluation of a recurrent gingival mass of 1-month's duration in the maxillary incisive region. A mass was marginally excised from the same site by the referring veterinarian 2 years prior to this examination, but histologic evaluation was not performed. A general physical examination did not reveal any clinically important abnormalities, and results of routine hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were unremarkable. A complete oral examination, including periodontal probing and charting, was performed. An irregular, exophytic, 16 × 15 × 10-mm gingival mass extended from the right

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 1-year-old 16.7-kg (36.7-lb) sexually intact female Bull Terrier was referred to the dentistry and oral surgery service of a veterinary teaching hospital for evaluation of a left maxillary canine tooth with discoloration of unknown duration. The owner reported that the dog was adopted at 4 months of age; since that time, the medical history was unremarkable, with no known history of trauma.

A general physical examination did not reveal any clinically important abnormalities, and results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis were within the respective reference ranges. Examination of the oral cavity revealed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 2.5-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated at the dentistry and oral surgery service of a veterinary teaching hospital because of an oral mass located in the right maxillary canine tooth region that had been present since birth. Six months prior to this examination, the referring veterinarian surgically debulked the mass and extracted the right maxillary canine tooth, and tissue samples were submitted for histologic examination. Findings included the presence of disorganized odontogenic epithelium intermixed with stroma; minimal nuclear variation was reported. Ameloblastic fibroma was diagnosed on the basis of the predominant epithelial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History and Physical Examination Findings

An 11-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was referred to the oncology service at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for evaluation and treatment of a nasal tumor. Three weeks earlier, the dog had a single episode of epistaxis and had been evaluated at a different referral facility. Computed tomography of the head was performed, revealing a right-sided nasal mass with possible invasion into the cribriform plate. Histopathologic findings from an incisional biopsy were consistent with nasal carcinoma. Carprofen (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was prescribed. Between the time of initial diagnosis and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the frequency of clinical and radiographic evidence of inflammation (ie, evidence of inflammation) associated with retained tooth root fragments (RTRFs) in dogs and to determine whether evidence of inflammation was affected by RTRF length and position within the alveolar bone.

SAMPLE

148 RTRFs in 66 dogs.

PROCEDURES

For each dog, demographic information was recorded, and full-mouth radiographs were obtained and reviewed for RTRFs. For each RTRF, the length of the fragment was measured on intraoral radiographic images, and its location and position relative to the alveolar bone margin were recorded. The presence or absence of evidence of inflammation in association with each RTRF was also recorded. Descriptive data were generated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors associated with evidence of inflammation around RTRFs.

RESULTS

81 of 148 (54.7%) RTRFs had evidence of inflammation. For every 1-mm increase in RTRF length, the odds of inflammation increased by 17% (OR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.34; P = 0.009). Odds of inflammation for RTRFs that protruded from the alveolar bone margin were 2.98 (95% CI, 1.02 to 8.72; P = 0.046) and 7.58 (95% CI, 1.98 to 29.08; P = 0.001) times those for RTRFs that were buried and level with the alveolar bone margin, respectively. Tooth root fragment length was a poor predictor of inflammation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that most RTRFs were associated with evidence of inflammation and supported the current recommendation for extraction of RTRFs whenever feasible.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 3-year-old 10.9-kg (24-lb) spayed female mixed-breed dog was examined because of an oral mass in the right rostral maxillary region. The owner reported that the swelling, described as an intermittent enlargement of the muzzle, had appeared 10 days before the physical examination. Prior to this event, the dog had no apparent health problems.

The results of a general physical examination were unremarkable. Extraoral examination revealed facial asymmetry with swelling over the right rostral maxillary region and mild bilateral epiphora with no nasal discharge. Intraoral examination revealed a smooth, fluctuant mass that measured approximately 20

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association