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  • Author or Editor: N. Kent Ames x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The purpose of this project was to study the effect of superalimentation in lactating sows through permanent, surgically placed, gastric cannulas. A surgical technique was developed to install gastric cannulas into pregnant sows to allow superalimentation by introducing feed through the cannula. After induction of general anesthesia, a flexible, T-shaped cannula (22 mm outside diameter) was surgically placed in the dorsal portion of the greater curvature of the stomach and exteriorized through the tenth intercostal space approximately 30 cm left of the dorsal midline. Cannulas were installed on day 85 ± 5 days of gestation.

Anesthesia, surgical procedures, and the subsequent presence of the cannula did not affect the size or number of live pigs at birth. In addition, the prevalence of still births and mummified fetuses was not significantly different than that of noncannulated sows. The gastric cannulas did not affect lactation performance, as litter size and weight were unaffected when compared with that in noncannulated controls. Postmortem examination of euthanatized sows revealed adhesions of the gastric wall to the abdominal wall, thus eliminating the possibility of leakage of the gastric contents into the peritoneum. Detrimental effects of the cannulas on gastric function or capacity were not detected, and cannulas could be maintained through multiple parities.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A surgical technique was developed for implanting a flexible polyurethane cannula in a lateral ventricle in the brain of calves. Initially, measurements were made on 25 calves at necropsy to develop equations for calculating coordinates for cannula placement. The distance (cm) caudal, in the sagittal plane, from the coronal suture line to the center of a hole to be drilled in the parietal bone of the skull was: 0.73 + (0.00925 × body weight [kg]). The distance (cm) lateral from the midline to the center of the hole to be drilled was: 0.018 + (0.6464 × distance caudal). The depth (cm) from the surface of the skull to the dorsal surface of the lateral ventricle was: 2.29 + (0.0159 × body weight [kg]). Surgery was subsequently performed on 17 calves. A 5-mm-diameter hole was drilled through the skull with a hand trephine at coordinates derived from the aforementioned regression equations. A polyurethane cannula (total length, 30 cm; 1 mm id; 2 mm od) covering a stainless-steel 20-gauge blunt-tipped needle (stylet) was lowered through the brain and into a lateral ventricle at an angle of 20.5° relative to the frontal bones of the skull. The blunt-tipped needle was then removed, and csf was allowed to drip from the cannula to verify placement. One stainless-steel screw was inserted 0.6 cm medial, and another was inserted 0.6 cm caudal to the hole in the skull. The area around the cannula, bone screws, and hole in the skull was covered with dental acrylic (approx 2 cm in diameter) to stabilize the cannula. With minimal restraint of calves, injection of substances into and withdrawal of csf from a lateral ventricle of the brain were possible in most calves for at least 6 weeks after surgery was performed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seventy-two lactating dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum were blindly assigned to treatment by use of the roll-and-toggle procedure or right paralumbar fossa pyloro-omentopexy. All cows were from the same large dairy herd, and survival in the herd and daily milk production were measured for 120 days after treatment. The mean cost was $256.50 for roll-and-toggle cases ($50 for the procedure, $95.70 in milk loss and $110.80 in livestock losses). The mean cost was $406.40 for the pyloro-omentopexy cases ($150 for the procedure, $87.80 in milk loss, and $168.60 in livestock losses). A possible interaction with metritis was discovered, in that pyloro-omentopexy cases cost about $100 more than roll-and-toggle cases when metritis was absent (31 cases) or moderate (32 cases), and cost several times more when metritis was severe (9 cases). Results of the study were in agreement with those of other studies that indicated that the closed repositioning and stabilization techniques are generally less expensive and have comparable results with open repositioning and stabilization techniques. Veterinarians may wish to consider use of this nonsurgical technique for the routine correction of left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cattle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association