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  • Author or Editor: Murray D. Jelinski x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the degree of white line separation created by increasing physiologic loads between bovine claws with and without toe-tip necrosis (TTN).

SAMPLE

Cadaveric bovine hind limbs with (n = 10) and without (10) TTN.

PROCEDURES

Hind limbs in which 1 or both claws had evidence of apical white line separation were considered to have TTN. Hind limbs in which neither claw had evidence of white line separation were considered controls. Each hind limb was mounted in a materials testing system with the bottom surface of the hoof angled at approximately 5° to the horizontal plane such that the apex of the claws made initial contact with the clear testing surface to simulate physiologic loading conditions. A digital camera mounted underneath the testing surface was used to obtain images of the bottom of the hoof during the application of each of 3 increasing static loads (1, 2, and 3 kN). The images were analyzed with commercial image-processing software to quantify white line separation area.

RESULTS

White line separation area was significantly greater for claws with TTN than for control claws and increased as the applied load increased. White line separation was almost nonexistent in control claws and was not affected by increasing load.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that mechanical loading exacerbated TTN, but compressive loading alone, even at excessive levels, did not initiate the condition. Interventions (eg, hoof blocks) that decrease loading of affected claws may be beneficial for the treatment of TTN at its earliest stages.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify risk factors associated with work-preventing musculoskeletal discomfort (MSKD) in the upper extremities (defined as neck, shoulders, upper back, arms, elbows, wrists, and hands) of bovine practitioners.

SAMPLE

116 members of the Western Canadian Association of Bovine Practitioners.

PROCEDURES

Data from a previously described cross-sectional survey of western Canadian bovine practitioners underwent further analysis. The survey, developed to glean information about MSKD in bovine practitioners, was a modified standardized Nordic questionnaire that included questions regarding personal and work characteristics and incidence and location of MSKD during the preceding 12 months along with perceptions about most physically demanding tasks. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with work-preventing upper extremity MSKD.

RESULTS

18 of 116 (15.5%) respondents indicated they had experienced work-preventing upper extremity MSKD during the preceding 12 months. The final multivariable regression model indicated that practice type (mixed animal vs primarily [> 50%] bovine; OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 0.96 to 10.67), practitioner height (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99), and number of veterinarians in the practice (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.66) were significantly associated with the odds of work-preventing upper extremity MSKD.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that reproductive examination of cattle was not a significant risk factor for upper extremity MSKD in bovine practitioners. Further research into the effects of biomechanical, organizational, and psychosocial workplace factors on the development of MSKD in bovine practitioners is necessary to help inform prevention strategies to foster career longevity in this increasingly diverse practitioner group.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify and quantify potential ergonomic hazards associated with routine reproductive examinations of cattle.

SAMPLE

7 bovine veterinarians.

PROCEDURES

Each veterinarian was observed and videotaped during 2 bovine reproductive examination appointments. During each appointment, a force-matching protocol was used to estimate the entry force used by the veterinarian to insert an arm into a cow's rectum. Veterinarian posture and repetitive movements and the work environment were assessed and quantified during review of the video recordings. Descriptive data were generated.

RESULTS

Of the 14 appointments observed, 9 and 5 involved examination of beef and dairy cows, respectively. For all veterinarians, an arm inclination ≥ 60° was observed during most reproductive examinations. The number of examinations performed per hour ranged from 19.1 to 116.8. The estimated entry force ranged from 121 to 349 N. During all 9 appointments involving beef cows, the veterinarian participated in other tasks (eg, operating overhead levers, opening gates, or assisting with cattle handling) that represented ergonomic hazards.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results confirmed that reproductive examination of cattle exposes veterinarians to various ergonomic hazards involving awkward positions and repetitive and forceful exertions that can contribute to musculoskeletal discomfort and injury, particularly of the upper extremities (neck, shoulders, upper back, arms, elbows, wrists, and hands). Veterinarians frequently participated in other tasks during reproductive examination appointments that exposed them to additional ergonomic hazards. Risk mitigation strategies should prioritize minimizing exposure of veterinarians to tasks not directly associated with the reproductive examination procedure to decrease their overall ergonomic hazard burden.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association