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  • Author or Editor: Mowafak D. Salman x
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Abstract

Objective

To determine energy expenditure (EE) of apparently resting, client-owned dogs with malignant or nonmalignant diseases that were recovering from anesthesia and surgery, and compare those values with values from clinically normal, apparently resting, client-owned dogs.

Animals

40 apparently resting, client-owned dogs that had been given general anesthesia for various elective and nonelective surgical procedures, and 30 apparently resting, clinically normal client-owned dogs used as controls.

Procedure

EE was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system. Each dog was evaluated before and after surgery (0, 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, then at suture removal > 14 days later) and compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). Parameters evaluated were rate of oxygen consumption (Vo2 /kg of body weight: ml/min/kg; Vo2 /kg0.75: ml/min/kg0.75), EE (EE/kg: kcal/kg/d; EE/kg0.75: kcal/kg0.75/d), and respiratory quotient.

Results

Surgery and anesthesia did not significantly alter any of these parameters at any time assessed in any group. The pretreatment Vo. and EE were significantly lower in the dogs with cancer, compared with dogs of other groups.

Conclusions

These data suggest that the EE of a re-stricted group of dogs that undergo anesthesia and surgery for malignant and nonmalignant conditions does not increase from baseline values or when compared with values in clinically normal, client-owned dogs.

Clinical Relevance

This information may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs recovering from anesthesia and surgery. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1321-1326)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of results of low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) and ACTH stimulation tests with necropsy findings in 81 dogs.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

81 dogs that had undergone screening tests for hyperadrenocorticism and that had a complete necropsy report.

Procedure—

Medical records were evaluated for results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, endocrine testing, signalment, treatment, and necropsy findings. Each dog was definitively classified as having true-positive, true-negative, false-positive, or false-negative results. Statistical analyses included determination of prevalence, apparent prevalence, accuracy, number of dogs misclassifled, sensitivity, specificity, and posltive-and negative-predictive values.

Results—

Of the 81 dogs that fit the criteria for selection, 40 (49%) were confirmed as having hyperadreno-corticism (30 had pituitary-dependent disease and 10 had adrenal gland tumors). Forty-one dogs had illnesses attributable to a cause other than disease of the adrenal glands. Sensitivity of ACTH stimulation and LDDS tests were 95 and 96%, respectively. Specificity for the ACTH stimulation test was higher (91%) than that of the LDDS test (70%). When prevalence of the disease in the study population was taken into consideration, the positive-predictive value for the ACTH stimulation test was 91%, compared with 76% for the LDDS test.

Clinical Implications—

The ACTH stimulation test was more specific than the LDDS test, although sensitivity was similar for both tests. The ACTH stimulation test also had a significantly higher positive-predictive value than the LDDS test when a prevalence of 25% was taken into consideration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:322–325)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To establish the maximum concentration and duration of oxytetracycline residues in milk from cows with retained fetal membranes given the antimicrobial via intrauterine infusion, and to investigate whether the number of infusions or the presence of fever (> 39.7 C) affected the duration of residues.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

54 Holstein cows with retained fetal membranes on a single 1,400-cow commercial dairy.

Procedure—

Cows were treated once a day with 5 g of oxytetracycline (50 ml of 100 mg/ml solution in a povidone base) by intrauterine infusion for at least 2 days, or until the membranes were expelled. Cows that became febrile (rectal temperature > 39.7 C) were also given 20,000 IU of procaine penicillin G/kg of body weight, IM, for 2 to 4 days. Milk samples were collected at 24-hour intervals during treatment, and at 12-hour intervals after the last treatment. All samples were frozen and submitted every 2 weeks for high performance liquid chromatography analysis for oxytetracycline.

Results—

Oxytetracycline was detected in milk of all cows during treatment, at a maximum concentration ranging from 47.2 to 1,804.6 μg/kg (mean, 316.9 μg/kg). Duration of oxytetracycline residues after the last infusion ranged from 0 to 144 hours (mean, 52.3 hours). Neither the number of infusions received, nor development of rectal temperature > 39.7 C, affected the maximum concentration or the duration of oxytetracycline residues in milk.

Clinical Implications—

Milk obtained from cows that had been treated for retained fetal membranes by intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline should be discarded to avoid illegal residues. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1753–1755)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Approximately 10 of 100 young heifers that had recently delivered their first calf—members of a large Colorado dairy herd—had a syndrome of swollen teats and distal portions of the hind limbs, prefemoral lymphadenopathy, transient fever, rough coat, decreased milk production, and subsequent weight loss and reproductive inefficiency. Acute clinical signs of disease were associated with large numbers of Eperythrozoon wenyonii seen on blood smears, and resolution of signs correlated with reduction or disappearance of the parasite. Other known causes of peripheral edema could not be documented. The parasite was transmitted to 4 of 7 nonlactating dairy cows destined to be culled and a splenectomized calf via IV inoculation of blood from parasitemic heifers, but clinical signs of infection were not induced.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine associations between clinical and histologic factors in dogs with primary lung tumors and outcome and to develop a histologic grading method for primary lung tumors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

67 dogs undergoing thoracotomy and lobectomy for primary lung tumors.

Procedure

Medical records and histologic sections were reviewed to evaluate factors of prognostic importance. Association of these factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and survival time was evaluated, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median DFI and survival time were determined, using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.

Results

Clinical and histologic factors significantly associated with prognosis were histologic score, detection of clinical signs, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes. On the basis of histologic score, a histologic grading method was developed. Dogs with well-differentiated tumors had significantly longer survival time and DFI (median DFI, 493 days) than dogs with moderately (median DFI, 191 days) or poorly (median DFI, 0 days) differentiated tumors. Dogs with clinical signs or metastasis to regional lymph nodes had shorter survival times and DFI than dogs in which lung masses were discovered as an incidental finding.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with well-differentiated, nonmetastasized, primary lung tumors that do not have clinical signs associated with the tumor have a favorable prognosis. Dogs with more advanced disease or aggressive tumors histologically may require treatment, such as chemotherapy in combination with surgery. The grading method proposed here for primary lung tumors may be useful in other dogs with primary lung tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1422–1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Proportional hospital accession ratios for chronic superficial keratitis (csk) of dogs were determined for 16 US veterinary teaching hospitals participating in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between Jan 1, 1976 and Dec 31, 1991. The prevalence of csk was significantly correlated (r = 0.90) with altitude of residence, but not with latitude, longitude, mean annual solar radiation, or mean annual relative humidity.

Medical records of dogs with (n = 595) and without (n = 72,877) csk examined at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between Jan 1, 1976 and Oct 28, 1991 were also reviewed. Belgian Tervuren, German Shepherd Dogs, Border Collies, Greyhounds, Siberian Huskies, and Australian Shepherds were disproportionately affected. Dogs between 4 and 7 years old were 2.36 times more likely to develop lesions than were dogs < 4 years old (P < 0.05). Among dogs < 4 years old, spayed females, sexually intact males, and castrated males were more likely to develop the condition (P < 0.05) than were sexually intact females. Altitude of residence was a significant risk factor in the development of csk among dogs in Colorado. Dogs living at altitudes > 7,000 ft above sea level were 7.75 times more likely to develop lesions than were dogs living at elevations between 3,000 and 5,000 ft.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (α1 ag) concentrations were determined in 55 dogs with previously untreated, histologically confirmed, high-grade lymphoblastic lymphoma, and in 34 dogs with histologically confirmed nonhematopoietic malignancies (13 dogs with carcinomas and 21 dogs with sarcomas). Serum concentrations were again determined in 32 dogs with lymphoma that were in complete remission 3 weeks after 1 dose of doxorubicin (30 mg/m2 of body surface, iv) and in 22 dogs that were still in complete remission 3 weeks after a fourth dose of doxorubicin. For comparison, serum α1 ag concentrations were measured in 19 clinically normal (control) dogs of similar weight and age. Eight of the control dogs were given 1 dose of doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, iv), and serum α1 ag concentrations were measured 3 weeks later.

In control dogs, mean serum α1 ag concentration after treatment with doxorubicin was not significantly different from mean concentration before treatment. Mean α1 ag concentrations in untreated dogs with lymphoma, in dogs with sarcomas, and in dogs with carcinomas were all significantly higher than mean concentration for untreated control dogs. In addition, the mean concentration for dogs with osteosarcomas was significantly higher than mean concentration for untreated control dogs. There were no significant differences in mean serum α1 ag concentrations among dogs with different clinical stages of lymphoma (stage IIIa, stage IVa, stage Va). However, mean serum α1 ag concentrations were were significantly increased for dogs with stages IIIa,, IVa, and Va lymphoma, compared with mean concentration for untreated control dogs. Mean serum α1 ag concentrations were significantly decreased in dogs with lymphoma that were in complete remission after either 1 or 4 doses of doxorubicin, compared with mean concentration in dogs with lymphoma that had not been treated.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Energy expenditure (ee) was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system in a group of 20 clinically normal, apparently resting, client-owned dogs. Five evaluations were performed over an 8-hour period to determine reliability of the method. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated as the ratio of within- and between-subject variances, using repeated-measures anova. When only the middle 3 evaluations were included, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87, indicating good reliability. The first evaluation was higher than the subsequent 4 evaluations for rate of O2 consumption (Vo2/kg and Vo2/kg0.75; (P ≤ 0.01), and ee/kg and ee/kg0.75 (P ≤ 0.005). The respiratory quotients at the first (P = 0.004) and second (P = 0.013) evaluations were different from the respiratory quotient at the fourth evaluation. Therefore, the first evaluation may not be representative of the actual ee. The mean value of at least 3 subsequent evaluations after an adequate adaptation period (5 to 10 minutes) to the equipment will be useful for predicting energy requirements of apparently resting, clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop appropriate reference ranges for plasma IgG concentrations of llamas.

Animals

643 llamas on 5 farms.

Procedure

Plasma IgG concentration was measured by using a single radial immunodiffusion assay kit. Farm of origin, age, body condition score, and sex were recorded for each llama. The effect of each factor on plasma IgG concentration was evaluated separately, using ANOVA; the association between age and IgG concentration was evaluated, using linear regression. Multivariable regression models were developed to examine concurrent effects of age, sex, body condition score, farm, and various interactions on IgG concentration.

Results

The IgG concentrations were between 127 and 3,969 mg/dl. In llamas < 12 months old, farm of origin accounted for 29% of variability for IgG concentration. Reference range for plasma IgG concentrations in llamas < 12 months old was 391 to 2,357 mg/dl; for llamas > 12 but < 28 months old was 771 to 2,796 mg/dl; and for llamas > 28 months old was 570 to 3,264 mg/dl. These ranges were applicable only for the kit used in this study.

Conclusions

Healthy llamas have a wide range of IgG concentrations. Determinants of IgG concentration are multifactorial, and their importance varies with age of the llamas.

Clinical Implications

The wide range of IgG concentrations observed in healthy llamas and the influence that age and farm may have on IgG concentrations indicate that a result for one specific llama should be interpreted in relation to those of its herdmates. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:406–409)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research