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  • Author or Editor: Monika Skalicky x
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Objective—To assess natural variations in degree of refraction, corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, corneal radius, and intraocular distance of healthy equine eyes.

Animals—159 horses with healthy eyes that were admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for nonophthalmic surgeries.

Procedures—Eyes of horses were examined with a retinoscope prior to anesthesia and with a keratograph and A- and B-scan ultrasonographic biometers during surgery. In addition, manual caliper measurements of horizontal and vertical corneal radii were obtained.

Results—Mean ± SD degree of refraction in the horizontal meridian of eyes was −0.06 ± 0.68 diopters (D). Vitreous body length and horse age correlated negatively with refraction values. The horizontal corneal radius (15.96 ± 1.28 mm) was larger than the vertical corneal radius (15.02 ± 1.09 mm). Accordingly, the vertical corneal curvature (21.56 ± 1.68 D) was greater than the horizontal corneal curvature (22.89 ± 1.65 D). Axial globe length (40.52 ± 2.67 mm), anterior chamber depth (6.35 ± 0.59 mm), lens thickness (12.30 ± 0.83 mm), and vitreous body length (21.87 ± 1.85 mm) were positively correlated with body weight, height, and age. Results of keratograph and caliper measurements correlated well for horizontal corneal diameter but poorly for vertical corneal diameter. Results of A- and B-scan ultrasonography differed by ≤ 1 mm in 64% of measured eyes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of keratometry and ultrasonographic biometry varied widely. Additional research is needed to validate the keratograph used in our study for measurements in equine eyes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare values for tibial plateau angle (TPA) obtained in dogs by conventional and digital methods.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—37 dogs with stifle joint abnormalities.

Procedures—In all dogs, radiographs of both stifle joints were obtained by conventional and digital means. On conventionally acquired radiographs, TPA was measured with a protractor and fine-point pencil in accordance with standard guidelines. A software program was used to measure TPA on digitally acquired radiographs. Two viewers with different levels of experience performed all measurements 3 times.

Results—For both viewers and both limbs, conventional TPA measurements were significantly correlated with digital measurements all 3 times. Conventional and digital measurements obtained by viewer 1 were significantly different from values obtained by viewer 2. However, inter-viewer and intertechnique differences in TPA measurements resulted in rotational differences of < 1 mm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that TPA measurements obtained with the digital method were comparable to those obtained by use of the conventional method. Subjectively, the digital method was easier to perform and faster and produced better-quality images.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association