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  • Author or Editor: Monika Egerbacher x
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Objective—To study chondrotoxic effects of enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFX) on canine and equine articular chondrocytes in culture and to compare the effects with that of cultivation in Mg2+-free medium.

Sample Population—Chondrocytes from articular cartilage of 4- and 6 -month old dogs and 2- to 4- year-old horses.

Procedure—Chondrocytes were cultivated with 10, 40, 80, and 160 μg of CFX/ml, 10, 50, 100, and 150 μg of ENR/ml, or in Mg2+-free medium. A live-to-dead test was performed to test cytotoxic effects. Morphologic changes were evaluated by electron microscopy. An attachment assay was used to test the ability of chondrocytes to adhere to collagen type- II coated-chamber slides in the presence of CFX and with Mg2+-free medium.

Results—Chondrocytes cultivated in quinolone-supplemented medium or Mg2+-free medium had a decreased ability to adhere to culture dishes. Cell shape and the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton changed in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were not species-specific and developed with both quinolones. On day 1 of culture, adhesion of chondrocytes to collagen type II was reduced to 70 and 45% of control values in the CFX treatment and Mg2+-free treatment groups, respectively. On day 5 of culture, adhesion of chondrocytes was reduced to 45 and 40% of control values in the CFX treatment and Mg2+-free treatment groups, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In vitro, chondrotoxic effects of quinolones appear to be the result of irregular integrin signaling and subsequent cellular changes. Drug concentrations leading to morphologic changes in vitro may be achieved in articular cartilage in vivo. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:704–708)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the anatomic and histologic features of the collateral ligaments (CLs) of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in cadaveric limbs obtained from nonlame horses and to compare the histologic findings with the ultrasonographic appearance of the CLs.

Sample—Medial and lateral CLs of the MCP and MTP joints of 28 limbs (16 forelimbs and 12 hind limbs) from 9 adult nonlame horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—26 limbs of 8 horses were examined by ultrasonography immediately after euthanasia. Postmortem gross and histologic examinations were performed for all 28 limbs. Histologic and ultrasonographic images were graded and compared.

Results—Ultrasonographically, the mean ± SD depth and width of the superficial CL were 5.1 ± 0.7 mm and 20.5 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. On histologic examination, only 125 of 319 (39%) specimens obtained from 56 medial and lateral CLs appeared normal. Histopathologic findings varied from mild changes in cellular density and collagen fiber orientation to severe fibrocartilaginous metaplasia. The degree of CL lesion severity increased distally, and the lateral CL was affected more frequently than was the medial CL. Ultrasonographically detectable abnormalities were not correlated with the histologic findings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, histologic abnormalities within the CLs of the MCP and MTP joints may be an adaptive response to joint hyperextension and compression and might predispose horses to desmopathy and ligament failure in the event of trauma. Ultrasonography did not detect morphologic changes of the CL matrix. For an accurate diagnosis of subclinical lesions, more sensitive imaging techniques (eg, MRI) should be considered.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine prevalence and radiologic and histologic appearance of vesicourachal diverticula in dogs without clinical signs of urinary tract disease.

Design—Original study.

Animals—50 dogs between 4 months and 17 years old representing 22 breeds that had been euthanatized for unrelated reasons; none of the dogs had a history or clinical signs of urinary tract disease.

Procedure—Retrograde positive-contrast radiography was performed, and radiographs were examined for macroscopic diverticula. Necropsy specimens from the urinary bladder vertex were examined by means of light microscopy for diverticula and signs of inflammation.

Results—17 of the 50 (34%) dogs had vesicourachal diverticula, and 1 additional dog had a urachal cyst. Fifteen of the 17 diverticula were macroscopic; surface area of the diverticulum could be measured radiographically in 13 of these dogs and ranged from 1 to 90 mm2. The remaining 2 diverticula were microscopic. Sixteen diverticula were intramural and 1 was extramural. Light microscopic signs of bladder wall inflammation could be detected in 5 dogs, 4 of which had macroscopic diverticula.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a high percentage of dogs without clinical signs of urinary tract disease may have vesicourethral diverticula. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of vesicourethral diverticula in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:383–386)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on type VII collagen– cleaving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue of extracorporeally perfused equine limbs.

SAMPLE 10 right forelimbs and 3 left forelimbs collected from 10 adult horses after slaughter at a licensed abattoir.

PROCEDURES Extracorporeal perfusion of the isolated equine limbs was performed for 10 hours under physiologic conditions (control-perfused limbs; n = 5) and with the addition of 80 ng of LPS/L of perfusate (LPS-perfused limbs; 5). Lamellar tissue specimens were then collected from the dorsal aspect of the hooves. Additionally, corresponding control specimens were collected from the 3 nonperfused left forelimbs. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with antibodies against total (latent and active) MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, and MMP-9 as well as antibody against active MMP-9. Intensity of immunohistochemical staining was scored, and stain distribution in the lamellar tissue was noted.

RESULTS Staining intensity of total and active MMP-9 was significantly increased in LPS-perfused versus control-perfused limbs. No such difference was identified for MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-8.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Of the 4 MMPs that are capable of degrading type VII collagen, MMP-9 was the only one for which production increased in the lamellar tissue of isolated equine limbs perfused with versus without a clinically relevant concentration of LPS. These results suggested that MMP-9 may be involved in initiation of pathological changes in lamellar tissue in endotoxin-induced laminitis, whereas MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-8 may be less relevant.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research