Objective—To compare the efficacy of a Salmonella
bacterin and a modified live Salmonella ser.
Choleraesuis vaccine on a commercial dairy.
Animals—450 cows in late gestation and 80 calves.
Procedure—Group-1 cows (n = 150) were vaccinated
once with a modified live S Choleraesuis (serogroup
C1) strain 54 (SC54) vaccine, group-2 cows (150) were
vaccinated on enrollment and 30 days later with a
Salmonella ser. Montevideo (serogroup C1) bacterin,
and group-3 cows (150) served as unvaccinated controls.
One gallon of colostrum harvested from the first
80 cows to calve was fed to each calf. Outcome
assessments included fecal shedding of Salmonella
spp for the first 10 days after parturition (cows) or birth
(calves), milk production, involuntary culling rate, mastitis
incidence, antimicrobial use, and mortality rate.
Results—Salmonellae were isolated from 306 of 309
(99%) cows and 64 of 74 (86.5%) calves. Shedding
frequency was less in SC54-vaccinated cows and
calves that received colostrum from those cows,
compared with the other groups, and vaccination was
specifically associated with less shedding of
serogroup C1 salmonellae. Production data were similar
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of
pregnant cows with an autogenous Salmonella bacterin
had no effect on fecal shedding of salmonellae,
whereas vaccination with a modified live
S Choleraesuis vaccine reduced the frequency of
fecal shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae during
the peripartum period. A commercial S Choleraesuis
vaccine licensed for use in swine may be more efficacious
than autogenous Salmonella bacterins on
dairies infected with serogroup C1 salmonellae. (Am
J Vet Res 2001;62:1897–1902)
Objective—To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of a high
extralabel dose of ceftiofur for treatment of experimental
salmonellosis in neonatal calves.
Animals—Forty-two 1- to 4-day-old Holstein bull
Procedure—36 calves were orally challenged with
Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhimurium (6.5 × 108
colony-forming units). Six additional calves were
retained as nonmedicated nonchallenged control
calves. Four days following Salmonella challenge, surviving
calves were randomly allocated to ceftiofurtreated
(5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) or nonmedicated control
groups. Calves assigned to the treated group were
medicated daily for 5 days starting on day 4 after challenge.
Calves were monitored for 18 days following
Salmonella challenge. Outcome assessments included
clinical parameters (attitude, appetite, fecal characteristics,
and rectal temperature), mortality rate, and
quantitative Salmonella culture of fecal samples,
mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal contents.
Results—Ceftiofur treatment was associated with a
significant decrease in rectal temperature and diarrhea.
Three of 15 medicated calves and 4 of 14 nonmedicated
calves died or were euthanatized between
days 4 and 18. A significant decrease in fecal shedding
of Salmonella organisms was observed in treated
calves, compared with non-medicated calves.
Salmonella organisms were isolated from all 10 nonmedicated
calves at necropsy, whereas no
Salmonella organisms were isolated from 5 of 12
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of
salmonellosis in neonatal calves with a high extralabel
dose of ceftiofur (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) promotes animal
welfare, reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella
organisms, and may promote clearance of Salmonella
infections when plasma ceftiofur concentrations are
maintained above minimal inhibitory concentrations.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:918–925)