Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of methylprednisolone (MP) and the relationship between MP and hydrocortisone (HYD) concentrations in plasma and urine after intra-articular (IA) administration of 100 or 200 mg of MP acetate (MPA) to horses.
Animals—Five 3-year-old Thoroughbred mares.
Procedures—Horses exercised on a treadmill 3 times/wk during the study. Horses received 100 mg of MPA IA, then 8 weeks later received 200 mg of MPA IA. Plasma and urine samples were obtained at various times for 8 weeks after horses received each dose of MPA; concentrations of MP and HYD were determined. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic estimates for noncompartmental and compartmental parameters were determined.
Results—Maximum concentration of MP in plasma was similar for each MPA dose; concentrations remained greater than the lower limit of quantitation for 18 and 7 days after IA administration of 200 and 100 mg of MPA, respectively. Maximum concentration and area under the observed concentration-time curve for MP in urine were significantly higher (approximately 10-and 17-fold, respectively) after administration of 200 versus 100 mg of MPA. Hydrocortisone concentration was below quantifiable limits for ≥ 48 hours in plasma and urine of all horses after administration of each MPA dose.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetics of MP may differ among IA MPA dosing protocols, and MP may be detected in plasma and urine for a longer time than previously reported. This information may aid veterinarians treating sport horses. Further research is warranted to determine whether plasma HYD concentration can aid identification of horses that received exogenous glucocorticoids.
Objective—To determine the effects of exercise on the distribution and pharmacokinetics of technetium Tc 99m medronate (99mTc-MDP) following intra-articular (IA) injection in horses.
Procedures—1 antebrachiocarpal joint (ACJ)/horse was assigned to the exercised group (n = 5), and the contralateral ACJ was evaluated in the nonexercised group (5) after a minimum washout period of 7 days. Following IA injection of 99mTc-MDP (148 MBq), blood and scintigraphic images of the carpus were obtained at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, 720, and 1,440 minutes. Plasma and scintigraphic radioactivity were determined over time, and pharmacokinetic parameters were generated via noncompartmental and compartmental analyses. Each horse was monitored via physical and lameness examination and ACJ synovial fluid analysis before injection and at days 1, 2, 3, and 7
Results—Lameness was not observed. Mean ± SD synovial fluid WBC count increased at day 1 (exercised, 721 ± 234 cells/μL; nonexercised, 948 ± 223 cells/μL), but returned to baseline at days 3 and 7 Mean time to maximum plasma radioactivity was earlier in the exercised group (16.00 ± 2.35 minutes) than the nonexercised group (43.75 ± 3.64 minutes). Linear regression of the scintigraphic radioactivity-time curves revealed a greater negative slope in the exercised group within the first 25 minutes. There was no difference in absorption or elimination rate constants in a 2-compartment model.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IA injection of 99mTc-MDP was safe and effective for evaluating synovial solute distribution. Exercise significantly increased early transfer of 99mTc-MDP from the ACJ into plasma, although absorption and elimination rate constants were not affected. Exercise may affect synovial clearance and withdrawal times of medications administered IA.
Objective—To assess the in vitro effects of various nalbuphine concentrations on viability and wound healing ability of corneal cells and potential drug transport through the corneal epithelium.
Sample—Cultured canine and human corneal epithelial cells (CECs) and cultured canine corneal stromal fibroblasts.
Procedures—CECs and stromal fibroblasts were exposed to nalbuphine (concentration of solutions ranged from 0% to 1.2%) for up to 30 minutes, and viability was assessed with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. A standard scratch test technique was used. Wound healing of CECs and stromal fibroblasts was evaluated following treatment with nalbuphine solutions < 0.1%. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry analysis was used to evaluate drug transport across a monolayer and a multilayer of human CECs.
Results—A progressive decrease in viability was detected in canine CECs for all nalbuphine treatment groups, whereas treatment with only 0.5% or 1.2% nalbuphine significantly reduced corneal stromal fibroblast viability, compared with results for control cells. Within 24 hours, treatment with 0.1% nalbuphine solution significantly altered the healing rate of both canine CECs and stromal fibroblasts. Continuous increases in transport rates of nalbuphine were detected with time for both the monolayer and multilayer of human CECs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro, nalbuphine potentially could penetrate through corneal tissue, but it may cause damage to the corneal epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Therefore, nalbuphine potentially may impair corneal wound healing.