OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of manufacturing gastrojejunostomy tubes from jejunostomy and gastrostomy tubes that would allow for gastric and enteral feeding of and aspiration of gastric contents from small animal patients.
DESIGN In vitro study.
SAMPLE 9 gastrojejunostomy constructs.
PROCEDURES Commercially available gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes were combined to create 9 constructs. Three investigators tested each construct with 4 solutions (tap water, a commercial enteral diet, and 2 canned food–water mixtures) and 3 syringe sizes for ease of injection through the gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes and aspiration through the gastrostomy tube. Flow rates were calculated and analyzed to evaluate effects of tube diameter and syringe size for each solution.
RESULTS The 20F/8F, 24F/8F, 28F/8F, and 28F/10F (gastrostomy tube/jejunostomy tube) constructs allowed for injection and aspiration of all solutions. The 5F jejunostomy tubes allowed only water to be injected, whereas the 8F jejunostomy tubes did not allow injection of the canned food–water mixtures. The 20F/10F construct did not allow injection or aspiration through the gastrostomy tube, whereas the 18F/8F construct allowed injection but not aspiration through the gastrostomy tube. Faster flow rates through the gastrostomy tube were associated with larger gastrostomy tube diameter, smaller jejunostomy tube diameter, and smaller syringe size. Faster flow rates through the jejunostomy tube were associated with smaller jejunostomy tube diameter.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that homemade gastrojejunostomy constructs would allow for administration of a variety of enteral diets. Limitations to the administration and aspiration of various enteral diets as well as patient needs should be considered before a gastrojejunostomy tube combination is chosen.
OBJECTIVE To assess intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and in vivo versus photographic agreement of a scoring system for the implant-skin interface (ISI) of external skeletal fixation (ESF).
SAMPLE 42 photographs of ISIs from 18 dogs for interobserver agreement and intraobserver repeatability and 27 photographs of ISIs from 6 dogs for in vivo versus photograph agreement.
PROCEDURES An ISI inflammation scoring system was developed. It included scales for 6 metrics (erythema, drainage amount, drainage type, swelling, hair loss or lack of hair regrowth, and granulation tissue). Photographs of the ISI of ESF were obtained by use of a standard protocol and evaluated to determine intraobserver repeatability and interobserver agreement (Cronbach α; 4 raters) of the ISI score. Agreement between in vivo and photographic ISI scores (2 raters) and correlation between median scores across metrics were evaluated.
RESULTS 42 photographs met the inclusion criteria. Overall intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.922 to 0.975. Interobserver overall Cronbach α ranged from 0.835 to 0.943. For in vivo versus photographic assessment, 27 ISIs in 6 dogs and their photographs were evaluated. The Cronbach α for both raters ranged from 0.614 to 0.938. Overall, the Cronbach α ranged from 0.725 to 0.932. Mean photographic scores were greater than mean in vivo scores for each metric. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.221 to 0.923. Erythema, swelling, and granulation were correlated with all other metrics.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, an ISI scoring system used in this study had high repeatability and agreement and may therefore be considered for use in clinical situations. Photographic scores were not equivalent to in vivo scores and should not be used interchangeably.