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  • Author or Editor: Mindy M. Brashears x
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Objective—To evaluate the effects of using retentionpond water for dust abatement on performance of feedlot steers and carriage of Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp.

Design—Matched cohort studies.

Animals—2 groups of feedlot steers comprising 3,510 (pathogen carriage) and 3,737 (performance) animals housed in a large commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle.

Procedure—Steers were systematically allocated to treatment pens approximately 60 days after arrival (pathogen carriage) or at arrival (performance). For evaluation of pathogen carriage, feces and hide swab specimens were collected from 25 animals in each pen within 10 days of slaughter. Samples were submitted for bacterial culture for E coli O157 and were tested with a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for Salmonella spp. For evaluation of performance, pen weights of animals were obtained at arrival and slaughter and feed delivered to each pen was recorded. The exposure of interest for both studies was application of retention-pond water through fixed high-pressure sprinklers.

Results—Carriage of E coli O157 and Salmonella spp and animal performance were not adversely affected by exposure to retention-pond water. Prevalences of E coli O157 in feces, on hides, and either in feces or on hides for those exposed to retention-pond water were 8.3%, 8.9%, and 15.4%, respectively; prevalences for those unexposed to retention-pond water were 11.4%, 15.4%, and 22.6%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of retention-pond water for dust abatement in feedlot pens does not adversely affect pathogen carriage or animal performance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226: 1378–1383)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate site-to-site variation within fecal pats from cattle with regard to detection of Escherichia coli O157 and determine the effect on the accuracy of prevalence estimates of assay of multiple samples collected from the same fecal pat.

Sample Population—120 freshly voided fecal pats collected from 2 beef feedlots.

Procedures—5 samples were systematically collected from each fecal pat and analyzed for E coli O157 via selective preenrichment techniques, immunomagnetic separation, and biochemical tests. Presumptive isolates were definitively identified via agglutination assays and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Best estimators of prevalence were calculated from the distribution of E coli O157–positive samples per pat.

Results—Of the 120 fecal pats, 96, 13, 4, 2, 3, and 2 fecal pats had 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 E coli O157–positive samples, respectively. The greatest estimate of E coli O157 prevalence (20%) was achieved when all 5 samples were assessed; this estimate represented a 2.4- fold increase in prevalence, compared with that provided via analysis of 1 sample/pat (8.2%). Compared with assessment of 5 sites/pat, the relative sensitivity of detecting an E coli O157–positive fecal pat via analysis of 1 site/pat was 40.1%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that estimates of E coli O157 prevalence derived from sampling of 1 location/pat are likely underestimates of the true prevalence of this pathogen in fecal pats (and by extension, cattle). Additional research is warranted to confirm these results in situations of high and low prevalence and across different feedlots. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2023–2027)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate administration of chlortetracycline in feed of cattle as a method to select for tetracycline resistance among enteric bacteria in feedlot settings.

Animals—20 steers.

Procedures—Steers were randomly assigned to an exposed cohort (n = 10) or an unexposed cohort (control cohort; 10). Chlortetracycline (22 mg/kg) in cottonseed meal was administered to the exposed cohort on days 0 through 4, 6 through 10, and 12 through 16. The control cohort was administered only cottonseed meal. Fecal samples were collected from 16 steers on days −7, 0, 2, 6, 8, 12, 14, 19, 22, 26, and 33, and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp were isolated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of selected antimicrobials was estimated.

Results—Overall, 56.0% and 31.4% of E coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were resistant to tetracycline. Exposure to chlortetracycline was associated with a significant temporary increase in log2 MIC for both genera but returned to preexposure values by day 33. Averaged across time, the proportion of tetracycline-resistant E coli and Enterococcus isolates was significantly greater in exposed than in unexposed steers. Although all ceftiofur-resistant E coli isolates were coresistant to tetracycline, exposure to chlortetracycline led to a significant decrease in the proportion of E coli resistant to ceftiofur during exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to chlortetracycline was associated with a temporary increase in the likelihood of recovering resistant bacteria. Exposure to chlortetracycline decreased the likelihood of recovering ceftiofur-resistant E coli isolates, even though isolates were coresistant to tetracycline. These findings warrant further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of administration of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) on antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in feedlot cattle.

Animals—61 feedlot steers.

Procedures—A cohort study was conducted. Steers were housed in pens (5 pens with 10 steers and 1 pen with 11 steers). Five steers in each pen were administered CCFA, and 5 served as control steers (1 pen had 6 control steers). The CCFA administration included a single-dose regimen (6.6 mg/kg, SC, on day 0), two-thirds–dose regimen (4.4 mg/kg, SC, on day 0), and 3-dose regimen (6.6 mg/kg, SC, on days 0, 6, and 13). Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, and 28. Fecal samples were collected immediately before CCFA administration. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15 antimicrobials were determined for 3 E coli isolates/fecal sample. Escherichia coli were enumerated by use of direct-plating techniques.

Results—Resistance to 1 or more antimicrobials was detected in 986 of 1,441 (68.4%) isolates recovered. Administration of CCFA was associated with a transient increase in the population of ceftiofur-resistant isolates. Susceptibility returned to day 0 values (ie, samples collected immediately before CCFA administration) approximately 2 weeks after completion of CCFA administration. Agreement between ceftiofur resistance and coresistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline was almost perfect (κ 0.97). We did not detect variation in susceptibility of E coli recovered from commingled control steers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of CCFA provided selection pressure that favored transient expansion of multiple-resistant variants.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research